Chapter 2 Study Guide - Study Guide 2 UNIT I: - The Atoms...

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Study Guide 2 UNIT I: - The Atoms & Molecules of Ancient Earth (Basic Chemistry) - The Properties of Water; Water Chemistry - Thermodynamics and Chemical Energy - The Origin of Life’s Energy-Rich Molecules, Redox Reactions, Carbon, Functional Groups - Organic & Macromolecules; Polymers, Chemical Evolution; Catalysis, 1st Macromolecules - Lipids, Semi-Permeable Membranes and the First Cells General Principles of Chemistry BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB. Elements : matter defined by a unique atomic structure CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC. Atom: 1) electrons orbit a nucleus containing protons and (except for H) neutrons ( Fig. 2.1 ). 2) # electrons = # protons; an electron has a - charge; a proton has a + charge; a neutron is neutral! C. Atomic # = # of protons; Atomic Mass = atomic weight = sum of masses of electrons, protons & neutrons: Mass of proton = mass of neutron = 1 dalton ; mass of electron is negligible! e.g., look at the symbol for beryllium: atomic # = 4, atomic mass = 8: (see periodic table, Fig. 2.2, 2.3 ) D. Isotopes : elements with same atomic #, but different atomic mass due to different # of neutrons: may be stable or unstable (i.e., radioactive); isotopes of an element: E. The shell model of an atom shows the energy of
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electrons orbiting the nucleus, while the orbital model shows the average position of electrons in space (s ee drawing at right). The location of electrons gives atoms their Combination of atoms give molecules their size, shape and chemical properties ( Figs. 2.9, 2.10 ). E. SOME NECESSARY DETAILS: There can be 2 electrons/orbital. While electrons are shown paired in the shell model of the atom, this model emphasizes kinetic energy levels of electrons moving around nucleus. There can be a maximum of two electrons in the first energy level (shell), and a maximum of eight paired electrons in the second shell. The
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Chapter 2 Study Guide - Study Guide 2 UNIT I: - The Atoms...

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