Chapter 4 Study Guide - Study Guide 4 UNIT I:- The Atoms...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Study Guide 4 UNIT I:- The Atoms & Molecules of Ancient Earth (Basic Chemistry)- The Properties of Water; Water Chemistry- Thermodynamics and Chemical Energy- The Origin of Life’s Energy-Rich Molecules, Redox Reactions and Carbon; Functional Groups- Organic & Macromolecules; Polymerization, Chemical Evolution; Catalysis & the First Macromolecules - Lipids, Semi-Permeable Membranes and the First Cells Organic & Macromolecules; Polymerization, Chemical Evolution; Catalysis & the First Macromolecules . Molecular Shape determines Function: The tetravalent C atom permits diversity of shape of organic molecules ( Fig. 2.8 ) 1. saturated and unsaturated (double) bonds between C atoms; ring structures; isomers... a) structural isomers , (branched vs . unbranched). b) geometric isomers (around double bonds). c) enantiomers (optical isomers) : A carbon (C) atom is said to be “optically active if four different groups are bound to it (e.g., Fig. 3.4, 5.2 ). Optical (chiral) isomers in solution rotate polarized light; measurable in a polarimeter. 2. When isomers are available, usually only one is used, or each has a different function in the cell. 3. Chemical properties of organic molecules : charge vs pH; size/shape; ability to store/release chemical energy; review the functional groups that provide organic molecules with many of their chemical properties: hydroxyl, carbonyl (aldehyde, ketone), carboxyl, amino, sulfhydril, phosphate ( Table 2.3 ). B. The origin of organic molecules : Stanley Miller tested the Oparin-Haldane hypothesis that a nutrient-rich primordial soup could have formed by an input of radiant energy into the simple inorganic molecules believed to be present on the pre-biotic planet ( Fig. 3.1 ). Most of the molecular (organic) building blocks of life were made in Millers flasks, supporting the Oparin-Haldane hypothesis. More recent hypotheses that suggest the origins of life in an oxidizing atmosphere using sunlight as an energy source, or around deep sea thermal vents. These hypotheses have some experimental support. C. Macromolecules ; monomers and polymers: dehydration synthesis ( condensation ) takes H 2 O from monomers, linking them in polymers ( Fig.3.5; 3.6 ). Hydrolysis adds water across the bonds linking monomers into polymers, separating the monomers. 25600) Carbohydrates : Sugars (monomers) and polysaccharides (polymers) nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 11/22/2009 for the course BIO SCI 150 taught by Professor Geraldbergstrom during the Spring '08 term at Wisconsin Milwaukee.

Page1 / 8

Chapter 4 Study Guide - Study Guide 4 UNIT I:- The Atoms...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online