EM 760 lec 6 - 08 - student slides

EM 760 lec 6 - 08 - student slides - Engineering Management...

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1 Engineering Management Organization Structure and Systems Session 6 February 12, 2008 Review • Design Elements – Size and Shape – Span of control/support – Control – Bureaucracy / Adhocracy –MBO – Authority, Power, and Responsibility – Rewarding A While Hoping for B – Communication – process, types Effective Listening • Concentrate • Pause before replying • Repeat it!
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2 Informal Organization • Frequent interaction by those whose relationships are not part of or governed by the formal organization • Share info between units • Maintain cohesion • Complex problem solutions • Fulfill Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Grapevine • Natural phenomenon • Accuracy • Speed • Efficient • Fills need • Gives power • Low cost • Should managers use it? Article 7 - Theory of Authority • Chester Barnard • If directive is accepted, its authority has been confirmed • If directive is not accepted authority has been denied • Accepted, unaccepted, barely acceptable or unacceptable
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3 Zone of Indifference • Individual will accept a communication as authoritative if it is positively acted upon • Orders are accepted without conscious questioning of authority – When communication is understood – When communication is consistent with the org goals – When communication is consistent with personal goals – If he/she is mentally and physically able to comply Widening the Zone of Indifference • Wide or narrow depending on ratio of inducements to burdens • Develop the four conditions – Use common language – Enlighten with respect to org goals – Induce, use informal org to sway public opinion –Tra in Successfully Communicated Authority • Potentiality of assent – communication sent only to members • Authority of position – coming from the office with org authority • Authority of leadership – coming from knowledge, ability or understanding • Lines of authority – the system of
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4 Factors in Effective Communication Systems • Channels of communication should be known • A formal channel to every member • Line of communication must be direct and as short as possible • Complete line of communication should be used • Competent persons serving as communication centers • No interrupted lines of communication during time
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EM 760 lec 6 - 08 - student slides - Engineering Management...

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