34_Chapter_01_outcomes

34_Chapter_01_outcomes - Chapter 1 Information systems: Key...

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Chapter 1 – Information systems: Key knowledge outcomes Key knowledge outcome The five elements of an information system An information system is much more than just ‘some computers with some programs on them!’ The five key components of an information system are: software, hardware, data, personnel and procedures. Software – system software as well as application software is required. Hardware – whilst computers are the most obvious hardware devices used in information systems, other peripheral hardware devices such as printers, scanners, modems etc may be essential to the smooth running of an information system. Data – the data stored in an information system is usually in the form of computer files (soft copy) or hard copy printouts. Personnel – the people who work within an information system are an essential part of the system. Procedures – ‘the things that people do’ – the steps that the personnel follow as they work within the information system. Key knowledge outcome The types of information systems Different organisations have different information processing needs, so there is a range of types of information systems to suit various needs. Larger organisations often have two or more information systems in place to perform different functions in their organisation. Enterprise computing systems assist managers of an organisation to oversee present needs of their organisation and forecast future needs, by providing compiled data about the activities of the organisation. Transaction processing systems are for processing and handling daily transactions, such as buying and selling in a shop or supermarket; or recording items borrowed and returned in a library. Business support systems are used to collate data and provide valuable information to users of an information system about how their organisation is functioning. For instance, weekly sales graphs could be produced which would allow managers and other workers to see if they are meeting sales quotas. Knowledge management systems are able to solve problems by using expert information stored in their ‘knowledge database’. They use ‘fuzzy logic’, as the input data may be vague or imprecise. ‘Fuzzy logic’ is based on artificial intelligence, which mimics human behaviour. User productivity systems provide reliable, suitable computer hardware and
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34_Chapter_01_outcomes - Chapter 1 Information systems: Key...

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