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@Lecture07_9 - PALEOBIOLOGY B is closer to A than to C or D...

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1 1 Fall 2009, GEL 107: Lecture 07 PALEOBIOLOGY 2 Phylogeny Reconstruction 3 Phylogenetic Tree Phylogenetic Hypothesis Phylogram Cladogram, ML tree, NJ tree (depending on the method) 4 A F B C D E B is closer to A than to C or D + E + F B + A is closer to C than to D + E + F A + B + C is the sister group of D + E + F Ancestor 5 What are basic tree terminologies? Why are family trees important? How do we use a tree to help group organisms together? What data and methods do we use to compute a family tree? How does parsimony work? Questions 6 A family tree provides a framework for evolutionary discussions 7 Evolutionary “stages” 8 9 A B C D E A B C D E
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2 10 What are basic tree terminologies? Why are family trees important? How do we use a tree to help group organisms together? What data and methods do we use to compute a family tree? How does parsimony work? Questions 11 Node 5 Nodes 12 Interode 5 Nodes 4 Internodes 13 Root 5 Nodes 4 Internodes 6 (External) Branches (Terminal) (Vertices) (Internal branches, Internal edges, stems) (Edges) 14 Any Node is Rotatable 15 Any Node is Rotatable 16 Any Node is Rotatable 17 BUSH LADDER SYMMETRICAL PECTINATE 18 A B D C Ancestor A B A B A B D C D C D C Unrooted Tree Outgroup Outgroup B is closer to A than to C + D
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3 19 A B C D B is closer to C + D than to A Ancestor 20 Derived Basal Saurop s ids
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  • Fall '08
  • Motani
  • Phylogenetics, Fin Fin Fin Limb Limb Limb Limb Limb Limb, basic tree terminologies, Crown Group Reptilia—Node-based Crown Group

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