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Unformatted text preview: tal checklist, if you will—for identifying the
root causes of performance gaps within an organization. As suggested earlier, it provides a very
general roadmap and a starting point on the path
to fundamental enterprise change. It provides the
conceptual framework for a change process that
involves gathering data on performance, matching
actual performance against goals, identifying the
causes of problems, selecting and developing action
plans, and, finally, implementing and then evaluating the effectiveness of those plans.
Our experience has led us to develop a general
approach to using the congruence model for
solving organizational problems. It includes
the following steps:
1. Identify the symptoms. In any situation, initial
information may reveal symptoms of poor performance without pinpointing real problems and their
causes. Still, this information is important because
it focuses the search for more complete data.
2. Specify the input. With the symptoms in mind,
the next step is to collect data concerning the
organization’s environment, its resources, and
critical aspects of its history. Input analysis also The Congruence Model involves identifying the organization’s overall
strategy—its core mission, supporting strategies,
3. Define the output. The third step is to analyze
the organization’s output at the individual, group,
and organizational levels. Output analysis involves
defining precisely what output is required at
each level to meet the overall strategic objectives
and then collecting data to measure precisely
what output is actually being achieved.
4. Determine the problems. The next step is to
pinpoint specific gaps between planned and
actual output and to identify the associated
problems—organizational performance, group
functioning, or individual behavior, for example.
Where information is available, it is often useful
to identify the costs associated with the problems
or with the failure to fix them. The costs might
be in the form of actual cost, such as increased
expenses, or of missed opportunities, such as
5. Describe the organizational components. This is
where analysis goes beyond merely identifying
problems and starts focusing on causes. It begins
with a data collection process on each of the
four major components of the organization.
A word of caution: As we mentioned earlier,
some of the most serious problems are the result
of changes in the external business environment. So it’s important to consider strategic
issues before focusing too narrowly on organizational causes for problems; otherwise, the organization is in danger of merely doing the wrong
thing more efficiently.
6. Assess the congruence. Using the data that have
been collected, the next step is to assess the
degree of congruence among the various organizational components.
7. Generate hypotheses about problem causes. This
stage involves looking for correlations between
poor congruence and problems that are affect- 11 Figure 6: The Congruence Model Informal
Organization Input Output Environment System
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This note was uploaded on 11/22/2009 for the course HR GM600 taught by Professor Na during the Spring '09 term at Keller Graduate School of Management.
- Spring '09