4 determine the problems the next step is to pinpoint

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Unformatted text preview: tal checklist, if you will—for identifying the root causes of performance gaps within an organization. As suggested earlier, it provides a very general roadmap and a starting point on the path to fundamental enterprise change. It provides the conceptual framework for a change process that involves gathering data on performance, matching actual performance against goals, identifying the causes of problems, selecting and developing action plans, and, finally, implementing and then evaluating the effectiveness of those plans. Our experience has led us to develop a general approach to using the congruence model for solving organizational problems. It includes the following steps: 1. Identify the symptoms. In any situation, initial information may reveal symptoms of poor performance without pinpointing real problems and their causes. Still, this information is important because it focuses the search for more complete data. 2. Specify the input. With the symptoms in mind, the next step is to collect data concerning the organization’s environment, its resources, and critical aspects of its history. Input analysis also The Congruence Model involves identifying the organization’s overall strategy—its core mission, supporting strategies, and objectives. 3. Define the output. The third step is to analyze the organization’s output at the individual, group, and organizational levels. Output analysis involves defining precisely what output is required at each level to meet the overall strategic objectives and then collecting data to measure precisely what output is actually being achieved. 4. Determine the problems. The next step is to pinpoint specific gaps between planned and actual output and to identify the associated problems—organizational performance, group functioning, or individual behavior, for example. Where information is available, it is often useful to identify the costs associated with the problems or with the failure to fix them. The costs might be in the form of actual cost, such as increased expenses, or of missed opportunities, such as lost revenue. 5. Describe the organizational components. This is where analysis goes beyond merely identifying problems and starts focusing on causes. It begins with a data collection process on each of the four major components of the organization. A word of caution: As we mentioned earlier, some of the most serious problems are the result of changes in the external business environment. So it’s important to consider strategic issues before focusing too narrowly on organizational causes for problems; otherwise, the organization is in danger of merely doing the wrong thing more efficiently. 6. Assess the congruence. Using the data that have been collected, the next step is to assess the degree of congruence among the various organizational components. 7. Generate hypotheses about problem causes. This stage involves looking for correlations between poor congruence and problems that are affect- 11 Figure 6: The Congruence Model Informal Organization Input Output Environment System Strategy Formal...
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This note was uploaded on 11/22/2009 for the course HR GM600 taught by Professor Na during the Spring '09 term at Keller Graduate School of Management.

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