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CHMD010 - @’— PREFACE 0 linking up atoms within the...

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Unformatted text preview: \@’— PREFACE 0 linking up atoms within the molecule investigations on dipole moments and diffraction of X—rays and elec- trons in gases isolating the coloring compounds of plants, especially chlorophyll discovery of the origin and nature of isotopes understanding atomic fission discovery of the molecular structure of insulin electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radi- cals deciphering the structure of biological molecules like antibiotics and cholesterol developing methods to map the structure and function of DNA discovering the detailed structures of viruses development of direct methods to determine crystal structures refinements in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy understanding chemical processes that deplete the earth’s ozone shield discovery of a new class of carbon molecule (fullerenes) invention of the world’s fastest camera that captures atoms in motion. In 1863, Alfred Nobel experienced a tragic loss in an experiment with nitroglycerine that destroyed two wings of the family mansion and killed his younger brother and four others. Nobel had discovered the most powerful weapon of that time, dynamite. By the end of his life, Nobel had 355 patents for various inventions. After his death in 1896, Nobel’s will described the establishment of a foundation to create five prizes of equal value “for those who, in the previous year, have contributed best towards the benefits for humankind” in the areas of chem- istry, physics, physiology/medicine, literature, and peace. Nobel wanted to recognize the heroes of science and encourage others in their quest for knowl- edge. My hope is that in including some of the Nobel prize winners in this text you too will be encouraged by the success and inventiveness of earlier scientists who were curious to know how and why things happen. This book provides a general overview of chemistry with sections on all the main areas you’ll find in a chemistry classroom or individual study of the subject. The basics are covered to familiarize you with the terms and concepts most common in experimental sciences like chemistry. There is a Periodic Table printed on the inside cover of this book, as well as in Chapter 4 to use as a reference. Additionally, I have listed a couple of Internet sites on the Periodic Table that have a lot of good information. The Periodic Table is the single most useful tool in the study of chemistry beside the pencil. The com- plete description of the Periodic Table and its uses is described in Chapter 4. ...
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