cristo-raul.German-literature-24grammata.com_.pdf - CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY Cornell University Library PT 91.R65 3 1924 026 076 541 The tine original

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Unformatted text preview: CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY : Cornell University Library PT 91.R65 3 1924 026 076 541 The tine original of tiiis book is in Cornell University Library. There are no known copyright restrictions in the United States on the use of the text. A HISTORY OF GERMAN LITERATURE JOHN G. ROBERTSON LECTURER IN THE UNIVERSITY OF STRASSBURG NEW YORK G. p. PUTNAM'S SONS EDINBURGH AND LONDON WILLIAM BLACKWOOD AND SONS 1902 All Rights reserved Printed by William Blackwood & Sons, Edinburgh, Scotland. PREFACE. While the general object and scope of the present History of German some explanation illustrative Literature are sufficiently obvious, necessary is Such passages are accompanied, dialects, with regard passages which form one of by a literal German in its to the features. the case of older version, which is to be considered as a glossary rather than as a translation. It is means the reader will be appreciate the meaning and poetic value believed that able better to of the extracts by than this if he were offered an English version or an actual translation into modern German. Medieval literature cannot be approached through the medium of translations, and, as F. Pfeiffer remarks in the introduction Vogelweide, " to his edition Mittelhochdeutsche of Walther von der Gedichte auch nur Neuhochdeutsche zu iibersetzen, ist ein Ding der Unmoglichkeit." Old High German, Old Saxon and Middle High German extracts are based on standard texts but, from the Early High German period onwards, titles of works and quotations are ertraglich ins ; taken from original editions — that is to say, the PREFACE. VI orthography not modernised. is The bibliographical notes are restricted to references which are likely to be of service to the English or American student. As a library, work which is to be found and consequently generally in collection of Deutsche Nationallitteratur, Kiirschner, individual owe I me have helped J. and and suggestions from those who to other workers in the field, F. — I I am Schenectady reading the proofs in Professor all, the by —irrespective of the unequal value of the volumes — referred to throughout. For what Above edited is for invaluable hints friend every larger accessible, indebted to the Landes-Bibliothek in me, in almost my have to express all Strassburg, cases, to write —especially my Union College, H. Wilkens of hearty thanks. Universitats- und which has enabled from a first-hand acquaintance with the literature. JOHN Strassburg, July i, 1902. G. ROBERTSON. ——— CONTENTS. ........ Preface Introduction . . PART E^t ©lb Chapter I. ^i^ . . . . v xv I. ©erman ^exiati. Early Germanic Culture; The Migrations. The Germanic races. Tacitus's account of the West Germans. The Goths ; Wulfila's translation of the Bible. The Migrations. Beginnings of the national epic Chapter Literary Beginnings under Charles the Great. Soundshifting. duction of Christianity. The Chapter .3 . . , Christianity. II. The High German liturgy. . The Merovingian Charles the Great. epoch. Intro- Translations of the IVessobrunner Gebet and the Hildebrandslied Charles the Great's Successors. III. . 10 Biblical Poetry. Ludwig the Pious. Tatian's Evangelienharmonie. The Old Saxon Ludwig the German. The Muspilli. Heliand and Genesis. Otfrid's Evangelienbuch. Chapter IV. . . .18 Latin Literature under the Saxon Emperors. NoTKBR. The Liturgic Drama. The Saxon emperors. Ecbasis captivi. The The Ludwigslied The Spielleute. St Gall Hrotsuith of Gandersheim. origin of the drama. Religious plays ; IValtkarius and Notker. Ritodlieb. . . -27 —— — — vm CONTENTS. PART Chapter German Wsb jWttilile Eiterature (10504350). The Beginnings of the Popular Asceticism. I. II. Epic. " Mariendichtung " and theological mysticism. Monastic reform. The Annolied and Kaiserchronik. Konig Rother. Her%og Ernst. The Spielmann's epic . Chapter . . The Poetry of Knighthood II. -39 . The Beginnings ; OF the Minnesang. The Alexanderlied and the Rolandslied. The Beast epic. Beginnings of the Influence of the Crusades. Eilhart von Oberge. Minnesang. " Spruchdichtung " Chapter The Nibelungen saga and ; IV. The The Burgundians Diu Klage . ; at , 59 Gudrun and the Heldenbuch. Gudrun in Normandy her deliverance. ComGudrun with the Nibelungenlied. The Heldenbuch, Hilde and Gudrun. parison of -So . and Kriemhild Siegfried Siegfried's death. Kriemhild's revenge. Chapter . Nibelungenlied. Nibelungenlied. Gunther and Brunhild. Etzel's Court The III. . . ; Dietrich cycle of epics. Ortnit and Wolfdietrich . . 72 Chapter V.— The Court Epic Heinrich von Veldbke, Hartman and Wolfram. : Heinrich von Veldeke's Emit. Herbert von Fritzlar and Albrecht von Halberstadt. Arthurian romance. Hartman von Aue. Wolfram's Parzival, Titurel and Willehalm . . .82 Chapter VI.— Gottfried von Strassburg; The Decay of the Court Epic. Gottfried's Tristan. The later Court epic. The influence of Hartman, Wolfram and Gottfried. Ulrich von Liechtenstein. Meier Helmbreht. Rudolf von Ems and Konrad von WUrzburg 99 ——— — — —— CONTENTS. Chapter VII. IX The Minnesang. Minnesang and Minnedienst. Friedrich von Hansen, Heinrich von Morungen and Reinmar von Hagenau. Walther. von der VogeJ,weidg, Neidhart von Reuenthal. Later Minnesingers .115 . Chapter Der Didactic Poetry and Prose. VIII. Winsbeke, Thomasin von Zirclssre's Welscher Gasl and Freidank's Hugo von Trimberg. Augsburg and Berthold of Regensburg Bescheidenheit, PART .... The sermons The Decay of Romance. I. Anecdotal romances. Vos. (13504700). Satire and Beast Fable. of chivalry and the rise of the middle classes. The decay 'Biaxit's literature. Narrenschiff. Chapter II. 133 III. lEatlg 0Eto l^igl) ©ermati iLiteratute Chapter of David of The Beast " Reimsprecher fable " . : Prose Reynke de . . 143 Meistergesang and Volkslied. Hugo von Montfort and Oswald von Wolkenstein. The MeisterThe Volkslied. Historical singers and their " Singschulen. " ballads; love songs and drinking songs. Chapter III. The Mystics humanism Geistliche The Mysticism and Humanism ; religious Lied . 156 The Reformation. The literature of Eckhart and Tauler. Geiler. his Erasmus. Martin Luther. Luther's Bible Lieder and Tischreden. Ulrich von Hutten. Murner : : ; Chapter IV. 166 The Reformation Drama. The Influence of the Reformation. Early " Fastnachtsspiele." Rebhun and Frischlin. Latin school comedy. Swiss dramatists. .180 Hans Sachs his Fastnachtsspiele and longer dramas . ; Chapter V. Satire and Drama in the Later Sixteenth Century. Wickram, Ringwaldt and RoUenhagen. Fischart. Revival of the drama under English of Faust. Heinrich Julius of Brunswick and Jakob Ayrer The Volksbuch Duke influence . . ; . 192 — — —— ; . X CONTENTS. The Renaissance. Chapter VI. Humanists Heidelberg. in deutschen Poelerey. The dramas Rist. Chapter The Martin Opitz and his Buck von der Dach, Fleming and literary societies. of Gryphius VU.— Religious . . Poetry • • . 203 Epigram and Satire. ; Gerhardt. The Protestant hymn Angelus Silesius and Spee. Lauremberg and Rachel. Schupp Satirists Logan's epigrams. .217 and Abraham a Santa Clara : : Chapter VUI.— The Novel in The " Robinsonaden." Reuter. PART . 226 . Centurg. Rationalism Thomasius, Leibniz Brookes and Hagedorn. Haller. The Moralischen Wochenschriften " .237 and Wolff. ' . Rationalism and English Influence. I. Revival of Pietism ' and IV. STfje lEtflttKJntf) Chapter Weise Ziegler's Asialische Zesen. Hofmannswaldau and Lohenstein Banise. • the Seventeenth Century. Simplicissimus. Grimmelshausen's Moscherosch. . . . : Spener. : Giinther. . Chapter Gottsched : II. his Leipzig and Zurich Critische Dichtkunst. Rabener and J. Fable writers Gellert. . as Literary Centres. Conflict with The Bnmer Beytrdge ; Breitinger. . Bodmer and E. Schlegel, Zacharia, . . Chapter III.— The Prussian Poets ; . Klopstock. Pyra and Lange Gleim, Uz and Gotz. Ramler. Frederick the Great. Klopstock his Afifj«Of and <9afe«. The "bards." Gessner Halle as a literary centre : 245 ; E. C. von Kleist. . Chapter Early dramas and criticism. IV. . . 256 Lessing. His Leipzig friends. Die LitteraturWinckelmann. Laokoon, Minna von Barnhelm and the Hamburgische Dramaturgic. Emilia Galotti and Nathan der briefe. Weise ........ 268 ————— CONTENTS, Chapter \^ieland V. XI Minor Prose Writers. ; Agathon, Die Abderiten, Wieland's influence. The novel imitations of RichardPopular philosophers. Lichtenberg Wieland's novels and verse romances : Oberon. son. : . Chapter Hamann. Herder VI. . . 283 The GSttingen Bund. ; Herder's Fraginente and Von deutscher Art und Kunst. Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichie. TheGottingen Volkslieder. Voss and Holty. Dichterbund. Claudius, Gockingk and Burger 293 Chapter VII.— "Sturm und Drang"; Goethe's Youth. The "Geniezeit." Goethe as a student in Leipzig and Strassburg. His Sesenheim lyrics. Gotz von Berlichingen, Werther and Clavigo. Faust in its earliest form. Egmont Early writings. . Chapter The Minor VIII. " 307 Sturmer und Dranger"; Schiller's Early Years. Gerstenberg. Lenz. Chapter IX. Leisewitz, Wagner and Die Rduber, Fiesco and Kabale ...... Klinger's first Maler MuUer. Schiller's youth und Liebe. Schubart period. : Schiller's Second Period. 323 End of the "Sturm und Drang." Don Carlos. Iffland. Schiller as historian. The " Ritterdrama." Klinger's novels. Chapter X. The The drama Schroder and .... : Heinse. theatre in Austria. Moritz and Forster 336 Goethe's First Twenty Years in Weimar. Goethe as minister of State. Frau von Stein. Goethe's period. His visit to Italy. Iphigenie and Tasso. Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre Weimar. lyrics of this .... Return to 348 \ Goethe and Chapter XI.— The Critical Philosophy. Schiller's Friendship. Kant's three Kritiken. sophic lyrics. Die Horen. Schiller's writings Humboldt. Die Xenien. Schiller's on aesthetics friendship Wallenstein . ; his philo- with Goethe. . . 361 — — —— CONTENTS. xii Chapter XII.— Goethe's Classicism Hermann Glocke. Faust. : Faust, erster Theil and Pandora. Natiirliche Tochler The First Part of Schiller's The, " Balladenalmanach.'' Goethe and the French Revolution his iind Dorothea. Lied von der ; 374 • . Chapter XIII.— Schiller's Last Dramas. The Weimar Court Maria Stuart, ..... Kotzebue. theatre. Schiller's Jungfrau von Orleans, Braut von Messina, Wilhelm Tell and Schiller's death Demetrius. Chapter XIV.— Minor Poets of the Classical Period. 3°7 The Transition to Romanticism. Seume. From Classicism to Kosegarten. Tiedge. Dialect literaRomanticism Fichte, Richter and Holderlin. -399 Hebel and Usteri ture Matthisson. : : . . PART . . . V. 3CJe i^inetEentl) Centurg. Chapter A. Founding of the school. Shakespeare. The Romantic School. I. W. Schlegel as Schelling and Schleiermacher Chapter II. his translation of ..... critic ; Tieck and Wackenroder. F. Schlegel. Novalis. 415 Romantic Drama and Patriotic Lyric. The " Schicksalstragodie ' : Werner, Milliner and Houwald. Kleist. Lyric of the " Befreiungskrieg " : ICorner, Arndt and Schenken- dorf, Riickert and Hoffmann von Fallersleben Chapter III. . . . 430 Goethe's Later Years. Die Wahlverivandtschaften. Dichtung und Der West-ostliche Divan, Wilhelm Goethe and Napoleon. Wahrlieit. Scientific interests. Meisters Wanderjahre. Chapter The Heidelberg IV. Faust, zweiter Theil . . . The Heidelberg Romanticists. Arnim and Gorres. Des Knaben Wunderhorn. The brothers Grimm German philology. Arnim's Kronenwdchter and Brentano's Griindung Prags school : 443 Brentano, ; . . 458 —— — — —— : CONTENTS. Chapter XUl The Philosophic Romanticism in Berlin. V. Movement. La Motte Fouque. Berlin as a literary centre. Gentz and MiiUer. philosophy of Hegel and Schopenhauer Chapter W. " Poetry of the Greek Revolt. MiiUer. Polenlieder " Chapter Savigny. 468 . . . Schulze. Rilckert. Gaudy and Mosen. . . Historical Fiction and Drama. VII. The The Decay of Romanticism. VI. Tieck's later " Novellen. '' E. T. A. Hoffmann. Eichen- Ciiamisso. .... dorfTs lyrics and novels. . .480 Immermann AND Platen. The historical novel Hauff and Haring (Alexis). Zschokke. The drama The Romantic opera Grabbe, Beer and Holtei. Weber and Marschner. Immermann and Platen : : . . 491 Chapter VIII.— "Young Germany." " Das junge Deutschland." Wienbarg. Borne. Heine ; his lyrics and ballads. As a prose-writer. Gutzkow's novels and dramas. Laube. Mundt, Gervinus and Menzel. Bettina von Arnim . Chapter IX. 501 The Swabian School. Romanticism in Swabia. Uhland ; his ballads and dramas. Kerner, Schwab and Waiblinger. Morike as lyric poet ; his Maler Nolten. Kurz. Vischer Chapter X. The Metternich . . Zedlitz, Griin . . . . S'8 Literature in Austria; Grillparzer. rigime. dramatic work. . ...... Collin and Schreyvogel. ^Grillpar zer; his Halm and and Lenau Chapter XI. Bauernfeld. Raimund and The Political Nestroy. 529 Lyric. Becker and Prutz. Herwegh. Freiligrath. Dingelstedt. Hoffmann Kinkel. Revolutionary poets in Austria. von Fallersleben. Annette von Droste-Hillshoff Stfachwitz. Geibel. . . 544 — CONTENTS. XIV The Drama. Chapter XII.— Literature of the Province. Reuter Stifter. Gotthelf and Auerbach. Ludwig his plays. Dramatic literature Hebbel Minor 'playwrights as dramatist and novelist. The novel of peasant-life : and Groth. ; ; . . Chapter XIII.— The Novel from 1S48 to The philosophic movement. The and Storm. Women-writers. historical novels. .... Jordan 557 1870. his dramas and ; and antiquarian romance. Freytag Spielhagen. • Keller 572 History and Criticism. Chapter XIV.— The Munich Group. Leuthold and Lingg. Schack. Bodenstedt. Heyse. Lorm and Hamerling. and his imitators. Wilbrandt and Jensen. Humourists. Historians and critics Geibel in Munich. Scheffel . Chapter XV. German From Richard Wagner. Wagner and his dramatic work. The "Meininger." Wildenbruch. C. F. Meyer. Austrian novelists. Chapter XVI. The Bayreuth movement. Fontane Anzengruber. . . 59^ The End of the Nineteenth Century. Nietzsche and individualism. Index ; unification. Festspiele. The 1870 to 1890 586 The lyric : Liliencron. Sudermann and Hauptmann. novel at the end of the century . The Minor . realistic dramatists. . .611 ........ 623 INTRODUCTION. Although the criteria of poetic excellence in often differed widely from those many German development of historical features literatures in common and, while ; Germany have acknowledged elsewhere, the with has literature of that naturally European other periods of flourishing and decay its have rarely coincided with those in France, in England, or even in Scandinavia, they have, in general, been rooted in social and intellectual movements, the significance of which In Germany, as in other lands, was more than national. for example, a shadowy pre-Christian epoch was followed by an age of rigid monasticism ; the knight of the Crusades receded before the burgher of the rising towns, and Reformation was And intimately associated with Renaissance. more recent in Germany has responded even more centuries, quickly than her neighbours to the social and intellectual changes which, heedless of national or linguistic barriers, have, from time to time, swept across Europe. While no modern has grown up in entire independence, closer ties or Germany. it is is more indebted to make relations in how far which it literature bound by fellows than that of its comparative survey, the position which establish in is Before entering on the study of this consequently important to and the none literature, by means of a occupies in Europe clear, it stands to other literatures; to divergences in the evolution of German ; INTRODUCTION. XVI letters are how to be ascribed to national temperament, in far to accidents of social or political history. Divisions Utoatoe." regarded, Historically natural division into German three of which tinguished by special linguistic characteristics : a of admits literature^ epochs, each is dis- an Old High which the dialects of South Germany retained the wide range of vowel sounds to be found in all the older Germanic languages; a Middle High German epoch, beginning about 1050, in which that diversity of vowel sounds German period, in and grammatical forms had and, lastly, in great measure disappeared; New High German a or modern German period, which began about the middle of the fourteenth century. During the second of these periods, the High German dialects gained an ascendancy over those of the North and of Central Germany, while, ture is New High German in practically restricted to times, German litera- High German. Setting out from the fact that the " Bliitezeit " of poetry, at the turn of the twelfth and thirteenth German centuries, was followed by a period of depression, which, ultimately, towards the end of the eighteenth century, made way for the crowning age of German classical poetry, Wilhelm Scherer attempted German to establish for , He regarded ing,'' it his law of evolution.^ between "periods of flourish- hundred years hypothesis, the epoch which touched its which recurred according to literature a general as oscillating at regular intervals of six Cp. A. Koberstein, Grundriss zur Gesckichte der deutschen Nationalby K. Bartsch, 6 vols., Leipzig, 1872-74 (vol. i. of a sixth edition appeared in 1884) G. C. Gervinus, Gesckichte der deutschen 1 litteratur (t.Ztj\ 5th ed., ; Dichtung (1835-36), 5th ed., by K. Bartsch, 5 vols., Leipzig, 1871-74; A. F. C. Vilmar, Gesckichte der deutschen JVationaiiitteratur {i8^8)f 24th ed., with a continuation by A. Stern, Marburg, 1894; W. Wackernagel, Gesckichte der deutschen Litteratur (1848-53), 2nd ed., by E. Martin, Basle, 1879-94 K. Goedeke, Grundriss zur Gesckichte der deutschen Dicktung (\Z^t-?,x), 2nd ed., Dresden, 1884 ff. (seven volumes have appeared) ; W. Scherer, Gesckichte der deutschen Litteratur (1883), 9th ed., Berlin, 1902; F. Vogt and M. Koch, ; Gesckickte der deutschen Litteratur von den dltesten Zeiten bis Leipzig, 1897 4th ed., ; zur Gegenwarty K. Francke, German Literature, as determined by Social Forces, New York, 1901. Cp. also J. Kurschner, Deutsche Nationallitteratur, volume as D.N.I^.) 1882-98 (referred to in the present 2 Gesckichte der deutschen Litteratur, gth ed., 18 f. 222 vols., Stuttgart, INTRODUCTION. xvii 1200 was preceded by an earlier " Bliitezeit " of unwritten literature, which reached its highest point about zenith in 600. Literary phenomenon however, evolution, Kepler applied to the planetary system first " period of flourishing " Germanic complicated a too is be explained by laws simple as those which to races, ; in any case, Scherer's only a hypothesis. is Other such as the Goths, had, as early as the fourth century, acquired a certain facility of literary expres- and the Anglo-Saxon epic of Beowulf dates from the but, considering only the West Germanic races of the continent those which especially concern us here we possess but one fragment of a heroic lay, the Hildebrandslied, and a couple of pre-Christian charms, sion, seventh or eighth century ; — — as a testimony to the Carlovingian epic had tions ; epoch. originated, nation's imagination previous to the The themes it is German of the national in the period of the Migra- true, but whether the traditions had, in that age, taken a form which could be described as The Old High German literary, is period of open German to doubt. literature ^ ex- The Old tended from about 750 to 1050; but, as the chief literary Qef^an remains date only from the ninth century, this epoch may, period, roughly speaking, be said to lie between the age in which Anglo-Saxon poetry flourished and the age of Anglo-Saxon prose. — if It was essentially a period of monkish ascendancy, and we except the epic poetry of the Saxons — the Germanic imagination was held rigidly in check by Christianity. the unequal battle between the In World and the Church, the former succumbed, and the Latin Renaissance of the eleventh century finally crushed out the weak beginnings of a national literature. 1 Cp. J. Meanwhile, however, the Romance Kelle, Geschichte der deutschen Litteratur, i (to literatures of the middle o...
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