Agricultural_Origins - Agricultural Origins, Social...

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Agricultural Origins, Social Consequences Humanity’s “greatest discovery” or “worst mistake”? Opening Remarks Pleistocene -> Holocene transition Global climate change Migration into North and South America “The Neolithic Revolution” Beginning 12,000 ya First cultivation of food by humans Independent evolutions… Neolithic Revolution Regions: Mexico – 12,000 ya Near East – 10,500 ya East Asia – 9,000 ya Europe – 9,000 ya South Asia – 8,500 ya South America – 7,000 ya Sub-Saharan Africa – 5,000 ya Eastern Woodlands – 3,500 ya America Southwest – 3,000 ya First plant domesticates Wild versions (wheat, barley) Root, not seed, crops (manioc vs. maize) Archaeology’s agricultural “myth” Food production: Sedentism-> Population growth-> Craft specialization-> Social stratification-> Changes in political organization-> Legal enforcement AND Taxation-> Economic relations of production, distribution, exchange, and consumption-> Economic and Political Modernity Abrupt vs. gradualist models Agriculture vs. Domestication Domestication An evolutionary process
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Human intervention in natural change Genetic alterations Non-food domestications Ritual offerings Ornamentation Medicine Agriculture A cultural activity Cultivation of farming and herding for food Explaining the Beginning of Agriculture Environmental explanations Climate change Population growth Food shortage solutions: Population reduction Territorial expansion Alternative use of local environment Competition for available resources: The “Oasis theory” Arid Holocene in Asia, North America Human/animal/vegetation populations concentrate What evidence could we appeal to for this?
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This note was uploaded on 11/23/2009 for the course ANP 202 taught by Professor Lewis during the Fall '08 term at Michigan State University.

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Agricultural_Origins - Agricultural Origins, Social...

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