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Unformatted text preview: AP® Biology 2008 Free-Response Questions Form B The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success
The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 5,000 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, and the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. Permission to use copyrighted College Board materials may be requested online at: www.collegeboard.com/inquiry/cbpermit.html. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP Central is the official online home for the AP Program: apcentral.collegeboard.com. 2008 AP® BIOLOGY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) BIOLOGY
SECTION II Time— 1 hour and 30 minutes Directions: Answer all questions. Answers must be in essay form. Outline form is not acceptable. Labeled diagrams may be used to supplement discussion, but in no case will a diagram alone suffice. It is important that you read each question completely before you begin to write. Write all your answers on the pages following the questions in the goldenrod booklet. 1. Measurements of dissolved oxygen (DO) are used to determine primary productivity in bodies of water. • Explain the relationship of dissolved oxygen to primary productivity. • How would the predicted levels of DO differ in each of the following pairs of water samples? Provide support for your prediction. Be sure to include a discussion of net productivity and gross productivity in your answer. I. Pond water at 25°C vs. pond water at 15°C II. Pond water placed in the dark for 24 hours vs. pond water placed in light for 24 hours 2. Many biological structures are composed of smaller units assembled into more complex structures having functions based on their structural organization. For THREE of the following complex structures, describe the smaller units, their assembly into the larger structures, and one major function of these larger, organized structures. (a) A eukaryotic chromosome (b) A mature angiosperm root (c) A colony of bees (d) An inner membrane of a mitochondrion (e) An enzyme © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -2- 2008 AP® BIOLOGY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B)
3. Evolution is one of the unifying themes of biology. Evolution involves change in the frequencies of alleles in a population. For a particular genetic locus in a population, the frequency of the recessive allele (a) is 0.4 and the frequency of the dominant allele (A) is 0.6. (a) What is the frequency of each genotype (AA, Aa, aa) in this population? What is the frequency of the dominant phenotype? (b) How can the Hardy-Weinberg principle of genetic equilibrium be used to determine whether this population is evolving? (c) Identify a particular environmental change and describe how it might alter allelic frequencies in this population. Explain which condition of the Hardy-Weinberg principle would not be met. 4. Scientists use the concept of homology in identifying evolutionary relationships among organisms. Features shared by two groups of organisms are said to be homologous if the similarities reflect shared ancestry. Homology is found in comparisons of structural, molecular, biochemical, developmental, physiological, and behavioral characteristics of organisms. Select THREE of the following hypotheses and explain TWO examples of homology that support each hypothesis. (a) Chloroplasts are related to photosynthetic prokaryotes. (b) Spiders and insects are closely related. (c) Echinoderms (sea stars and their relatives) are closely related to the chordates (the phylum that includes vertebrates). (d) Reptiles and birds are closely related. (e) Humans and chimpanzees are closely related primates. STOP END OF EXAM © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). -3- ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/23/2009 for the course BIOLOGY 1101 taught by Professor Keith during the Winter '05 term at The University of Oklahoma.
- Winter '05