Unformatted text preview: AP® Biology 2008 Free-Response Questions The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success
The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 5,000 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, and the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. Permission to use copyrighted College Board materials may be requested online at: www.collegeboard.com/inquiry/cbpermit.html. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP Central is the official online home for the AP Program: apcentral.collegeboard.com. 2008 AP® BIOLOGY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS BIOLOGY
SECTION II Time— 1 hour and 30 minutes Directions: Answer all questions. Answers must be in essay form. Outline form is not acceptable. Labeled diagrams may be used to supplement discussion, but in no case will a diagram alone suffice. It is important that you read each question completely before you begin to write. Write all your answers on the pages following the questions in the pink booklet. 1. The physical structure of a protein often reflects and affects its function. (a) Describe THREE types of chemical bonds/interactions found in proteins. For each type, describe its role in determining protein structure. (b) Discuss how the structure of a protein affects the function of TWO of the following. • Muscle contraction • Regulation of enzyme activity • Cell signaling (c) Abnormal hemoglobin is the identifying characteristic of sickle cell anemia. Explain the genetic basis of the abnormal hemoglobin. Explain why the sickle cell allele is selected for in certain areas of the world. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -2- 2008 AP® BIOLOGY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS
2. Consumers in aquatic ecosystems depend on producers for nutrition. (a) Explain the difference between gross and net primary productivity. (b) Describe a method to determine net and gross primary productivity in a freshwater pond over a 24-hour period. In an experiment, net primary productivity was measured, in the early spring, for water samples taken from different depths of a freshwater pond in a temperate deciduous forest. (c) Explain the data presented by the graph, including a description of the relative rates of metabolic processes occurring at different depths of the pond. (d) Describe how the relationship between net primary productivity and depth would be expected to differ if new data were collected in mid-summer from the same pond. Explain your prediction. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -3- 2008 AP® BIOLOGY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS
3. Regulation is an important aspect of all biological processes. For FOUR of the following processes, describe the specific role of the regulator and discuss how the process will be altered if the regulation is disrupted. Process Cell cycle Metabolic rate Ovarian cycle Prey population dynamics Ecological succession Regulator Cyclin Thyroxine Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Predators Fire 4. Flowering plants have evolved various strategies for fertilization. (a) Describe the process of fertilization in flowering plants. (b) Discuss TWO mechanisms of pollen transfer and the adaptations that facilitate each mechanism. Some species of flowering plants have evolved mechanisms to prevent self-fertilization. (c) Discuss an evolutionary advantage of preventing self-fertilization. (d) Describe TWO mechanisms that prevent self-fertilization. STOP END OF EXAM © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). -4- ...
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