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Endocrine_Review_jd_2 (2) - Endocrine System Review...

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Endocrine System Review Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Endocrine System Review Consists of discrete individual glands that produce and secrete chemical messengers known as hormones. Hormones travel from endocrine organs to their targets via the blood. Target cells are cells that have receptors for specific hormones on them.   Page 2. Goals/ What You Need to Know Goals To identify the well established endocrine glands in the body. To review some of the well-understood hormones that are produced by each gland or tissue. To identify some of the major target tissues for each gland or tissue. To understand a simplified function for each hormone that is reviewed. What You Need to Know The difference between endocrine and exocrine glands and the composition of a mixed gland. The difference between endocrine glands and endocrine tissues. The basic categories of organic molecules. The components and functions of a negative feedback system. Page 3. Endocrine Glands: Hormones and Functions *Be sure to review all the highlighted endocrine glands on this page. Pituitary gland Divided into the glandular anterior lobe and the neuronal posterior lobe. All six anterior pituitary hormones are peptides. The Six Major Anterior pituitary hormones are: 1. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH or thyrotropin) 2. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH, a gonadotropin) 3. Luteinizing Hormone (LH, a gonadotropin) 4. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH, or corticotropin) 5. Growth Hormone (GH) 6. Prolactin (PRL) Targets and Functions of the Anterior Pituitary Hormones 1. TSH – target thyroid gland and stimulates secretion of thyroid hormone (TH). 2. FSH – targets follicles in the ovaries of females and stimulates growth of follicle and production of estrogen. In males it targets the testes and stimulates sperm cell production. 3. LH – targets follicle, triggers ovulation and increases secretion of progesterone. In males it stimulates testosterone production. 4. ACTH – targets the adrenal cortex and causes the secretion of glucocorticoids. 5. GH - targets most bodily tissues and stimulates metabolism and growth of those tissues. 6. PRL - targets the breasts in females. Stimulates breast development and lactation. Role is uncertain in males.
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For each target gland/tissue here fill in the correct anterior pituitary hormone. Pineal Gland Produces the amine hormone melatonin. Functions not well understood in humans but thought to play a role in regulating light-dark cycles. Thyroid gland Produces two very different hormones. 1. Follicular cells produce the amine-based thyroid hormone (TH).
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