Investigation Alcohols- Final

Investigation Alcohols- Final -...

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Investigation: Using Oxidation to Identify Alcohols Name: Prashanth Rasanayagam Teacher: Ms. Varnes Date: Thursday, November 6 th 2008 Course: SCH 4UC Investigation: Using Oxidation to Identify Alcohols
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Introduction: Alcohols are any organic compounds that have a hydroxyl group (-OH) bonded to a carbon atom of an attached alkyl or substituted alkyl group. Alcohols are common everyday substances used by a majority of the population on a daily basis. Alcohols can be further sub-divided into three classes: primary alcohols, secondary alcohols, and tertiary alcohols. Primary alcohols (1º) are alcohols in which the carbon atom to which the hydroxyl group is attached to is attached to one other carbon atom. Secondary alcohols (2º) have the carbon atom with the hydroxyl group attached to two other carbon atoms and tertiary alcohols (3º) have the carbon atom with the attached alkyl group attached to three other carbon atoms. Ethanol is an example of a simple primary alcohol. The simplest secondary alcohol is isopropyl alcohol (propan-2-ol), and a simple tertiary alcohol is tert-butyl alcohol (2-methylpropan-2-ol). Subdivided into three classes, according to the number of carbons attached to carbon atom bearing the –OH group, the hydroxyl group alcohols undergo multiple reactions which are subjective to the availability of H atoms or alkyl groups in key positions. Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols each react differently when oxidised. An oxidizing agent can be defined as a chemical compound that gains electrons. This is called a redox (Reduction-Oxidation) reaction in which an atom, molecule, or ion gets reduced as it gains electrons and an atom, molecule, or ion gets oxidized if it loses electrons. Acidified potassium permanganate, KMNO 4 (aq) , and acidified potassium dichromate, KCr 2 O 7 (aq) , act as oxidizing agents when they come into contact with alcohols. In this investigation we will examine how potassium dichromate and potassium permanganate reacts with a primary, a secondary, and a tertiary alcohol. Using the observations gathered we will determine which of the unknown alcohols corresponds to each class of alcohol. Materials: N-propyl alcohol, (Unknown #1) Isopropyl alcohol , C 3 H 8 O (Unknown #2) Tert-butyl alcohol (Unknown # 3) 0.01mol/l KMnO 4(aq) 0.01 mol/L KCr 2 O 7(aq) 1mol/L H 2 SO 4(aq) Distilled water 8 clean test tubes 400 ml beaker Plastic pipettes
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Data Collection and Processing: Table 1: Observations of Reagents Reactants Reagants Chemical Agent Colour Transparency Formula Acidified Potassium Permanganate (KMNO 4 (aq) ) Oxidizing Agent Deep Purple Opaque KMnO 4(aq) Acidified Potassium Dichromate (KCr 2 O 7 (aq) ) Oxidizing Agent Yellow Translucent KCr 2 O 7(aq) N-propyl alcohol Alcohol Colourless Transparent OH- CH 2- CH 2 - CH 3 Isopropyl alcohol Alcohol Colourless Transparent CH 3 - (OH)CH-CH 3 Tert-butyl alcohol Alcohol Colourless Transparent CH 3 - (OH)C(CH 3 )- CH 3 Sulfuric Acid
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This note was uploaded on 11/23/2009 for the course HIS HIS1d03 taught by Professor Dr.adams during the Fall '08 term at McMaster University.

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Investigation Alcohols- Final -...

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