2_AkilliSP_ProblemsSolutions - 1 Course 2: Problems,...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Course 2: Problems, Problem Solving ¡ Central of our approach to AI ¡ Agents : Basic definitions ¡ Agents and Environments Interaction ¡ Nature of the environments (problems) ¡ Structure of the Agents ¡ Summary Intelligent Agents ¡ Central of our approach to AI is the concept of Acting rationally (designing Rational Agents) ¡ Some keywords to remember “Acting rationally” concept ¢ Rational behavior: doing the right thing ¢ The right thing: that which is expected to maximize goal achievement, given the available information ¢ Doesn't necessarily involve thinking – e.g., blinking reflex – but thinking should be in the service of rational action 2 Agents: Basic definitions ¡ An agent is anything that can be viewed as perceiving its environment through sensors and acting upon the environment through effectors ¡ The term percept is refer to the agent’s perceptual inputs at any given instant ¡ An Agent’s percept sequence is the complete history of everything the agent has ever perceived. Examples of Agents Humans Programs Robots___ senses keyboard, mouse, dataset cameras, pads body parts monitor, speakers, files motors, limbs Agent is a tool for analysing systems, not an absolute characterization!!! 3 Agents structure ¡ The agent function maps from percept histories to actions: [ f : P* Æ A] ¢ Agent’s behavior is described by the agent function ¡ The agent program runs on the physical architecture to produce f ¡ agent = architecture + program Example: Vacuum-cleaner world ¡ Percepts: location and contents, e.g., [A,Dirty] ¡ Actions: Left , Right , Suck , NoOp ¡ Very simple Agent Function: if the current square is dirty, then suck, otherwise move to the other square. ¡ Different agent functions can be defined! What is the right way to design agent functions? ¡ Or what makes an agent good or bad, intelligent or stupid? 4 Good Behavior: The concept of the rationality ¡ An agent should strive to "do the right thing", based on what it can perceive and the actions it can perform. ¡ The right action is the one that will cause the agent to be most successful Environment Agent percepts actions ? Sensors How to design this? For a rational agent Effectors ¡ Performance measure is an objective criterion for success of an agent's behavior. ¡ E.g., performance measure of a vacuum-cleaner agent could be ¡ amount of dirt cleaned up: (clean up one side and dump other side??) ¡ amount of time taken, amount of electricity consumed, amount of noise generated, etc., ¡ General Rule: It is better to design performance measure according to what one actually wants in the environment, rather than according to how one thinks the agent should behave....
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2_AkilliSP_ProblemsSolutions - 1 Course 2: Problems,...

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