1_AkilliSP_Introduction - 1 Course 1: Introduction ¡...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Course 1: Introduction ¡ Outline ¢ What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)? ¢ The Foundations of Artificial Intelligence ¢ The History of Artificial Intelligence ¢ The State of the Art ¢ Summary What is AI? What is Intelligence ? What is Artificial Intelligence (AI) ? 2 • There are no clear consensus on the definition of AI • Here’s one from John McCarthy, (He coined the phrase AI in 1956) - see http:// www.formal.Stanford.edu/jmc/whatisai/ ) Q. What is artificial intelligence? A. It is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs. It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence, but AI does not have to confine itself to methods that are biologically observable. Q. Yes, but what is intelligence? A. Intelligence is the computational part of the ability to achieve goals in the world. Varying kinds and degrees of intelligence occur in people, many animals and some machines. What is AI? What is AI? ¡ For thousands of years, we have tried to understand how we think ? ¡ The field of the artificial intelligence (AI) goes further: attempt to not just understand but also to build intelligent entities. ¡ AI is one of the newest sciences. ¡ A student in physics might reasonably feel that all the good ideas have already been taken by Galileo, Newton, Einstein, and rest. ¡ AI, on the other hand, still has openings for several full-time Einsteins!!. ¡ AI currently encompasses a huge variety of subfields. 3 Main Areas of AI ¡ Knowledge representation (including formal logic) ¡ Search, especially heuristic search (puzzles, games) ¡ Planning ¡ Reasoning under uncertainty, including probabilistic reasoning ¡ Learning ¡ Agent architectures ¡ Robotics and perception ¡ Natural language processing Search Knowledge rep. Planning Reasoning Learning Agent Robotics Perception Natural language ... Expert Systems Constraint satisfaction What is AI? AI fall into four categories*: ¢ Acting humanly ¢ Thinking humanly ¢ Thinking rationally ¢ Acting rationally The textbook advocates “Acting rationally” !!! *Russell and P. Norvig, "Artificial Intelligence A Modern Approach", Second Edition, Prentice Hall, 2003. 4 Acting humanly: Turing Test ¡ The Turing Test , proposed by Alan Turing (1950), was designed to provide a satisfactory operational definition of intelligence. ¡ The computer is asked questions by a human interrogator. It passes the test if the interrogator cannot tell whether the responses come from a person ¡ Required capabilities: natural language processing, knowledge representation, automated reasoning, learning,... ¡ No physical interaction Acting humanly: What would a computer need to pass the Turing test?...
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This note was uploaded on 11/24/2009 for the course ELECTRICAL 1512200540 taught by Professor Ahmetyazıcı during the Fall '09 term at Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi.

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1_AkilliSP_Introduction - 1 Course 1: Introduction ¡...

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