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Unformatted text preview: Key European History Terms Absolutism: A form of monarchical power that is unrestrained by any other institutions, such as churches, legislatures, or social elites. Absolutism is typically used in conjunction with some European monarchs during the transition from feudalism to capitalism , and monarchs described as "absolute" can especially be found in the 17th century through the 19th century . Absolutism is characterized by the ending of feudal partitioning, consolidation of power with the monarch, rise of state power, unification of the state laws, and a decrease in the influence of nobility. Monarchs often depicted as absolute rulers include Louis XII I and Louis XIV of France , Ivan I I I , Ivan IV and Peter the Great of Russia , Leopold I of Austria , Frederick I I I of Denmark , Charles XI and Charles XII of Sweden , and Frederick the Great of Prussia . Dreyfus Affair: A political scandal which divided France in the 1890s and the early 1900s. It involved the conviction for treason in November 1894 of Captain Alfred Dreyfus , a young French artillery officer of Alsatian Jewish descent. Sentenced to life imprisonment for allegedly having communicated French military secrets to the German Embassy in Paris, Dreyfus was sent to the penal colony at Devil's Island in French Guiana and placed in solitary confinement . The intense political and judicial scandal that ensued divided French society between those who supported Dreyfus (the Dreyfusards) and those who condemned him (the anti-Dreyfusards), such as Edouard Drumont (the director and publisher of the anti-Semitic newspaper La Libre Parole) and Hubert-Joseph Henry . Agricultural Revolution: A period of development in Britain between the 17th century and the end of the 19th century, which saw a massive increase in agricultural productivity and net output. This in turn supported unprecedented population growth, freeing up a significant percentage of the workforce, and thereby helped drive the Industrial Revolution . How this came about is not entirely clear. In recent decades, enclosure , mechanization , four-field crop rotation , and selective breeding have been highlighted as primary causes, with credit given to relatively few individuals. Alexander I: Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801 to 1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Russian Grand Duke of Finland . He succeeded to the throne after his father was murdered, and ruled Russia during the chaotic period of the Napoleonic Wars . Alexander I I I: Emperor of Russia from 13 March 1881 until his death in 1894. Duke of Alva: A Spanish general and governor of the Spanish Netherlands (1567-1573), nicknamed "the I ron Duke" by Protestants of the Low Countries because of his harsh rule and cruelty. Tales of atrocities committed during his military operations in Flanders became part of Dutch and English folklore, forming a new and central component of the Black Legend ....
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This note was uploaded on 11/03/2009 for the course NA 12345 taught by Professor Na during the Spring '09 term at École Normale Supérieure.
- Spring '09