ap04_frq_biology - AP® Biology 2004 Free-Response...

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Unformatted text preview: AP® Biology 2004 Free-Response Questions The materials included in these files are intended for noncommercial use by AP teachers for course and exam preparation; permission for any other use ® must be sought from the Advanced Placement Program . Teachers may reproduce them, in whole or in part, in limited quantities, for face-to-face teaching purposes but may not mass distribute the materials, electronically or otherwise. This permission does not apply to any third-party copyrights contained herein. These materials and any copies made of them may not be resold, and the copyright notices must be retained as they appear here. The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 4,500 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves over three million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, and the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. For further information, visit www.collegeboard.com Copyright © 2004 College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, AP Vertical Teams, APCD, Pacesetter, Pre-AP, SAT, Student Search Service, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark jointly owned by the College Entrance Examination Board and the National Merit Scholarship Corporation. Educational Testing Service and ETS are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service. Other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. For the College Board’s online home for AP professionals, visit AP Central at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 2004 AP® BIOLOGY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS BIOLOGY SECTION II Time—1 hour and 30 minutes Directions: Answer all questions. Answers must be in essay form. Outline form is not acceptable. Labeled diagrams may be used to supplement discussion, but in no case will a diagram alone suffice. It is important that you read each question completely before you begin to write. Write all your answers on the pages following the questions in the pink booklet. 1. Meiosis reduces chromosome number and rearranges genetic information. (a) Explain how the reduction and rearrangement are accomplished in meiosis. (b) Several human disorders occur as a result of defects in the meiotic process. Identify ONE such chromosomal abnormality; what effects does it have on the phenotype of people with the disorder? Describe how this abnormality could result from a defect in meiosis. (c) Production of offspring by parthenogenesis or cloning bypasses the typical meiotic process. Describe either parthenogenesis or cloning and compare the genomes of the offspring with those of the parents. 2. Darwin is considered the “father of evolutionary biology.” Four of his contributions to the field of evolutionary biology are listed below. • • • • The nonconstancy of species Branching evolution, which implies the common descent of all species Occurrence of gradual changes in species Natural selection as the mechanism for evolution (a) For EACH of the four contributions listed above, discuss one example of supporting evidence. (b) Darwin’s ideas have been enhanced and modified as new knowledge and technologies have become available. Discuss how TWO of the following have modified biologists’ interpretation of Darwin’s original contributions. • Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium • Punctuated equilibrium • Genetic engineering Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 2 2004 AP® BIOLOGY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS 3. A controlled experiment was conducted to analyze the effects of darkness and boiling on the photosynthetic rate of incubated chloroplast suspensions. The dye reduction technique was used. Each chloroplast suspension was mixed with DPIP, an electron acceptor that changes from blue to clear when it is reduced. Each sample was placed individually in a spectrophotometer and the percent transmittance was recorded. The three samples used were prepared as follows. • Sample 1 – chloroplast suspension + DPIP • Sample 2 – chloroplast suspension surrounded by foil wrap to provide a dark environment + DPIP • Sample 3 – chloroplast suspension that has been boiled + DPIP Percent Transmittance in Three Samples Time (min) Light, Unboiled % Transmittance Dark, Unboiled % Transmittance Light, Boiled % Transmittance Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 0 28.8 29.2 28.8 5 48.7 30.1 29.2 10 57.8 31.2 29.4 15 62.5 32.4 28.7 20 66.7 31.8 28.5 (a) On the axes provided, construct and label a graph showing the results for the three samples. (b) Identify and explain the control or controls for this experiment. (c) The differences in the curves of the graphed data indicate that there were differences in the number of electrons produced in the three samples during the experiment. Discuss how electrons are generated in photosynthesis and why the three samples gave different transmittance results. Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 3 2004 AP® BIOLOGY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 4 2004 AP® BIOLOGY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS 4. Organisms rarely exist alone in the natural environment. The following are five examples of symbiotic relationships. • • • • • Plant root nodules Digestion of cellulose Epiphytic plants AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) Anthrax Choose FOUR of the above and for each example chosen, (a) identify the participants involved in the symbiosis and describe the symbiotic relationship, and (b) discuss the specific benefit or detriment, if any, that each participant receives from the relationship. END OF EXAMINATION Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). 5 ...
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