ap04_sg_b_biology - AP® Biology 2004 Scoring Guidelines...

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Unformatted text preview: AP® Biology 2004 Scoring Guidelines Form B The materials included in these files are intended for noncommercial use by AP teachers for course and exam preparation; permission for any other use ® must be sought from the Advanced Placement Program . Teachers may reproduce them, in whole or in part, in limited quantities, for face-to-face teaching purposes but may not mass distribute the materials, electronically or otherwise. This permission does not apply to any third-party copyrights contained herein. These materials and any copies made of them may not be resold, and the copyright notices must be retained as they appear here. The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 4,500 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves over three million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, and the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. For further information, visit www.collegeboard.com Copyright © 2004 College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, AP Vertical Teams, APCD, Pacesetter, Pre-AP, SAT, Student Search Service, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. Educational Testing Service and ETS are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service. Other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. For the College Board’s online home for AP professionals, visit AP Central at apcentral.collegeboard.com. AP® BIOLOGY 2004 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1 a) Provide three examples of adaptations found in various prokaryotes. Explain how these three adaptations have ensured the success of prokaryotes. (Max. 6 points) • • 1 pt for each example of an adaptation (3 are asked for) 1 pt for each explanation of how that adaptation ensured success Some sample answers are: Sample • fast reproduction • asexual reproduction • genetic transfer (conjugation, transduction, transformation) • plasmids • diverse metabolism (N2 fixation, anaerobes, chemoautrotrophs, variety of substrates) • extremophiles • • • • endospores cell walls small restriction enzymes Explanation • out-compete other organisms • no need to risk change if environment constant • can increase species variation • • provide new phenotypic capabilities can colonize habitats inhospitable to others • can colonize habitats inhospitable to others or explanation (thermophiles have altered enzymes so can live at high temperatures, halophiles have altered cell wall and compatible solutes to live in high salt concentrations) resist harsh conditions protect from osmotic lysis, protect from some chemicals high SA/Vol ratio, large number in small space protection from viruses • • • • b) Discuss how prokaryotes early in Earth’s history altered environments on Earth. (Max. 6 points) • • • 1 pt for each identification of an impact on early Earth 1 pt for explanation of how environment was altered 1 pt for elaboration Some sample answers are: Early Impact Explanation • provided oxygen • cyanobacteria produced oxygen that was previously not present • production of • converted CO2 (or methane) to sugars, proteins, etc. usable organics • converted N2 to usable form • nitrogen fixation • origin of organelles • endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria/chloroplasts Elaboration • discussion of how photosynthesis produces oxygen, discussion of ozone • discussion of Calvin cycle • • discussion of nitrogen cycle discussion of evidence for endosymbiont theory Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). 2 AP® BIOLOGY 2004 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1 (continued) c) Discuss three ways in which prokaryotes continue to have ecological impact today. (Max. 6 points) • • 1 pt for each impact on Earth today (3 are asked for) 1 pt for explanation Note: Most answers for part B will also work here. Some sample answers are: Current Impact Explanation • chemical cycling (decomposition) • explanation of role in a specific cycle (N, C, O, etc.) • pathogenesis • specific example; example linked to ecology • biotechnology • food industry, bioremediation; example must link to ecology Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). 3 AP® BIOLOGY 2004 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 2 Using measurements of dissolved oxygen concentration to determine primary productivity, design a controlled experiment to test the hypothesis that primary productivity is affected by either the intensity or the wavelength of light. In your answer, be sure to include the following. Hypothesis (1 point) • A statement of the specific hypothesis that you are testing (reasonable, testable and measurable) Note: No points for just stating which independent variable (IV) they are choosing Explanations provided in hypothesis may apply to last bullet Experimental design (1 point each, Maximum 8 points) A description of your experimental design (be sure to include a description of what data you would collect and how you would present and analyze the data using a graph) Note: to get max. must earn at least one graph point • • • • • • • • • • • • identify/define control identify independent variable (IV) specify IV levels/range identify dependent variable (DV) explain how to measure DV identify constant (only one needed to earn point) identify appropriate aquatic organism (not limited to species name, e.g. phytoplankton ok) specify length of experiment or frequency of measurements specify number of replications specify statistical analysis graph - correct possible line graph setup (axis, labels-units not necessary) graph - correct line(s) (must imply comparison) Results (1 point) • A description of results that would support your hypothesis/explanation that relates to primary productivity Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). 4 AP® BIOLOGY 2004 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 3 Homeostasis of 3 parameters (Maximum of 4 points for each parameter chosen). Within each Parameter: • mechanism appropriate for organism (1 point) • explanation appropriate for mechanism (1 point) Parameter 1 Blood glucose level Example of an organism Any appropriate animal Mechanism Insulin Glucagon Hunger Parameter 2 Body Temperature Example of an organism Mechanism Any appropriate animal Sweating Shivering Dilation of peripheral blood vessels Constriction of peripheral blood vessels Piloerection (not in humans) Countercurrent heat exchange An Ectotherm An Endotherm Parameter 3 Behavioral mechanisms Behavioral mechanisms How homeostasis is maintained. Lowers blood glucose Raises blood glucose Changes behavior (finding food) How homeostasis is maintained. Evaporative cooling Generates metabolic heat Increases surface of blood vessels exposed Increases surface of blood vessels exposed Traps air to insulate against heat loss Appropriate description for animal choice Appropriate link of behavior to change Appropriate link of behavior to change pH of blood Example of an organism Any appropriate animal Mechanism Breathing Rate Hb-buffer Protein buffer How homeostasis is maintained. Altering carbon dioxide concentration Altering H ion concentration Altering H ion concentration Altering H ion concentration Kidney secretion Parameter 4 Osmotic concentration of blood Example of an organism Mechanism Any appropriate animal Kidney Secretion of ADH Take in water through mouth Excrete dilute urine How homeostasis is maintained. Filtration, reabsorption Water reabsorption in CD Replaces water lost (hypertonic environment) Removes water gained (hypotonic environment) Parameter 5 Neuron resting-membrane potential (Note: either restoring or maintaining resting potential) Example of an organism Mechanism How homeostasis is maintained. Any appropriate animal Na+/K+ pump Restores the ion gradient Gated channels Repolarizes membrane Question 4 Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). 5 AP® BIOLOGY 2004 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Same chosen kingdoms must be used for parts a, b, and c a) Select two kingdoms and briefly describe three characteristics used to distinguish between members of one kingdom and members of the other. (Max 4 points) • First distinguishing characteristic for kingdom 1 and kingdom 2 • Second distinguishing characteristic for kingdom 1 and kingdom 2 • Third distinguishing characteristic for kingdom 1 and kingdom 2 • Elaboration Note: accept “has/does not have” as distinguishing Describe three characteristics (at least one molecular and one cellular) that members of these two kingdoms share. (Max 4 points) • • • • Similar characteristics of same kingdom 1 and kingdom 2 – molecular level Similar characteristics of same kingdom 1 and kingdom 2 – cellular level Similar characteristics of same kingdom 1 and kingdom 2 – any category Elaboration c) Propose an explanation for the existence of similarities and differences between the two kingdoms. (Max 3 points) • Explanation of difference • Explanation of similarity • Elaboration of either difference or similarity in both kingdoms Note: Could be functional or evolutionary explanation Copyright © 2004 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). 6 ...
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