Ap05_sg_biology_b - AP® Biology 2005 Scoring Guidelines Form B The College Board Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a

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Unformatted text preview: AP® Biology 2005 Scoring Guidelines Form B The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 4,700 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves over three and a half million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, and the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. College Board, AP Central, APCD, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Vertical Teams, Pre-AP, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board. Admitted Class Evaluation Service, CollegeEd, Connect to college success, MyRoad, SAT Professional Development, SAT Readiness Program, and Setting the Cornerstones are trademarks owned by the College Entrance Examination Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. Other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. Permission to use copyrighted College Board materials may be requested online at: http://www.collegeboard.com/inquiry/cbpermit.html. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP Central is the official online home for the AP Program and Pre-AP: apcentral.collegeboard.com. AP® BIOLOGY 2005 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1 Part (a) (6 points maximum) Answer must include at least one environmental point (how) and one survivorship point (why) to reach the 3-point maximum for each behavior. Students were instructed to choose TWO types of behavior Taxis/Kinesis How: Identification of environmental stimulus/trigger (e.g., light, moisture, pH, nutrients, temperature) Why: Adaptiveness of response (e.g., escape from predators, find food, avoid desiccation) Migration How: Identification of environmental stimulus/trigger (e.g., changes in light/dark cycle, nutrients, temperature, ecological changes/catastrophes) Why: Adaptiveness of response (e.g., access to food, water, nutrients, temperature tolerance) Courtship How: Identification of environmental stimulus/trigger (e.g., changes in light/dark cycle, nutrients, temperature, ecological changes/catastrophes) Why: Adaptiveness of response (e.g., mated pair has better access to food, water, nutrients, temperature tolerance) increasing survival of parents and/or offspring Part (b) (2 points maximum per curve) The justifications are required for any credit to be awarded. “Large” and “small” assignments for herbivores are interchangeable if the appropriate justification is provided in the essay. Partial credit for stating that curve A is the predator was awarded in essays that stated the predator readily switched between large and small herbivores as its prey. Curve A • large herbivore • population not affected by predators in curve C • food sources constantly available; eats different food than small herbivore Curve B • small herbivore • largest population size • short generation time • population decreases as predator increases Curve C • predator • smallest population size • increase of predators follows increase of herbivores; increase of predators drives decrease of herbivores Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). 2 AP® BIOLOGY 2005 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 2 NOTE: Every point awarded must answer how. To earn a point, a mechanism must be described for each adaptation. Flowering Plants (6 points maximum) Flower (2 points maximum) Fruit/Seed (2 points maximum) Broad Leaves (2 points maximum) Structure for reproduction involving animal vectors to fertilize Pollination—comparison to nonangiosperm Food enhances dispersal by animals (fruit) Greater surface for energy capture Dormancy enhances survival (seed) Pollination—comparison to flagellated sperm Structure enhances dispersal; embryo protected within seed (seed coat) Pollination—comparison to wind-blown pollen Genetic diversity—cross pollination Color and odor attracts specific pollinators Endosperm (food for embryo) Enhanced photosynthetic activity: more chloroplasts; more photosystem energy harvest; more photosynthetic cells Must include mention of increased light energy harvest (e.g., no points for improved gas exchange, stomata, transpiration) Flatworms (6 points maximum) Three Germ Layers (2 points maximum) Bilateral Symmetry (2 points maximum) Cephalization (2 points maximum) Elaboration of organ systems: digestive, reproductive, excretory Specialization of cells Elaboration of body form: A/P; d/v; L/R Elaboration of sensory organs Forward movement facilitated Centralized nervous system More sophisticated responses to stimuli Consequence of bilateral symmetry Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). 3 AP® BIOLOGY 2005 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 2 (continued) Segmented Worms (6 points maximum) Segmentation (2 points maximum) Coelom (2 points maximum) Complete Digestive System (2 points maximum) Compartments = efficient regional specializations possible; expression of homeotic genes Development of muscular movement Elaboration of organs Regions of specialization Separation of internal organs from body tube Repetition of body parts Development of muscular movement Hydrostatic skeleton Improved processing of food: continuous throughput of materials Reptiles (6 points maximum) Amniotic Eggs (2 points maximum) Waterproof Skin (2 points maximum) Well-developed Lungs (2 points maximum) Not necessary to return to water for reproduction Protection for embryo/leathery shell Prevents drying out on land Prevents desiccation of embryo (shell) Permits adaptations to land habitats More efficient reproduction: internal fertilization; fewer gametes required Embryonic membranes: food supply stored in yolk; amnion protecting embryo from mechanical damage New hatchlings more fully developed No points for survival in water unless linked to reduced water loss on land Better able to exchange gas with atmosphere Adaptation to terrestrial habitats; gas exchange with air instead of water Internal, folded up inside body—moist gas exchange surface does not dry out, also protected from damage Necessary consequence of waterproof skin Mechanical/chemical protection of body No points for holding breath or breathing underwater Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). 4 AP® BIOLOGY 2005 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 3 NOTE: To receive 10 points, a student must earn at least 1 transcription point and 1 translation point from parts (a), (b), or (c). Parts (a), (b), and (c) (9 points maximum) Part (a) Transcription Translation • • • • • • • • • • • • • • DNA template complimentary RNA (base-pairing) RNA produced by RNA polymerase promoter region/TATA box transcription factors DNA unwound (partially, temporarily) posttranscriptional processing mRNA template codon/anticodon tRNA carries amino acid role of ribosome initiation (fMet, Shine-Delgarno) elongation (peptide bond formation) termination description Part (b) NOTE: Students must provide specific similarity AND explanation to earn a point. Similarity • base pairing • • • polymer formed specialized protein specific start sites Explanation Transcription DNA–RNA, specific base examples RNA RNA polymerase promoter/TATA Translation mRNA–tRNA (codon–anticodon), specific base examples polypeptide initiation factors, etc. initiation (start) codon Part (c) NOTE: Students must provide specific difference AND explanation to earn a point. Difference Explanation • • • • • Transcription nucleus RNA DNA transfer information RNA polymerase location in cell (eukaryote) product template purpose enzymes Translation cytoplasm, rough ER polypeptide mRNA make proteins peptide bond-forming enzyme (peptidyl transferase) Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). 5 AP® BIOLOGY 2005 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 3 (continued) Part (d) (3 points maximum) • Folding • Cleavage • Chemical modification • Elaboration—specifics of folding, chaperones, types of bonds, role of Golgi, incorporation into existing molecular arrays, etc. Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). 6 AP® BIOLOGY 2005 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 4 Part (a) (3 points maximum) • Orientation of axes, labels, scales, units. • Data points (one mistake permitted) and line drawn. • Determine molar concentration of potato cells. (Note: This point must be read from graph. It should fall into the range of 0.25 to 0.4 M.) Part (b) (4 points maximum) Components of water potential (1 point maximum) • Pressure potential AND solute/osmotic potential/(ψ = ψp + ψs ) Importance of water potential/as related to water movement (3 points maximum) • Ensures water moves into plant root. • Helps movement of water within plant. • Factor involved in transpiration. • Cell wall allows for increased pressure (turgor pressure). • Pressure might counteract osmolarity. Part (c) (4 points maximum) Prediction 0.0 M Gain water/mass Swell/burst/lyse Explanation • • • • • 1.0 M Lose water/mass Shrivel/crenate • • • • Cell is hypertonic to sucrose solution. Sucrose solution is hypotonic to cell. Water potential is greater in 0.0 M environment. No cell wall. Cell moving toward equilibrium (isotonic). Cell is hypotonic to sucrose solution. Sucrose solution is hypertonic to cell. Water potential is greater inside animal cell. Cell moving toward equilibrium (isotonic). 2 points maximum 2 points maximum Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). 7 ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/23/2009 for the course BIOLOGY 1101 taught by Professor Keith during the Winter '05 term at The University of Oklahoma.

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