ap07_sg_biology - AP® Biology 2007 Scoring Guidelines The...

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Unformatted text preview: AP® Biology 2007 Scoring Guidelines The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 5,000 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, and the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. Permission to use copyrighted College Board materials may be requested online at: www.collegeboard.com/inquiry/cbpermit.html. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP Central is the official online home for the AP Program: apcentral.collegeboard.com. AP® BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Membranes are essential components of all cells. (a) Identify THREE macromolecules that are components of the plasma membrane in a eukaryotic cell and discuss the structure and function of each. (6 points maximum; 1 point for each macromolecule + structure, 1 point for each macromolecule + function) NOTE: Only first three molecules mentioned will be scored. Macromolecule Phospholipids OR Structure • Lipid with phosphate Glycerol, two fatty acids, and polar head group w/phosphate • Amphipathic • Hydrophilic or polar (head) and hydrophobic or nonpolar (tails) Function (must match selected macromolecule) • Selectively permeable • Fluidity • Creates compartment/ separates cell from environment; barrier • Signals, inositol pathway (IP3) diacylglycerol (DAG) • • Ring structure • Moderates fluidity • Steroid • Stabilizes membrane • Amphipathic • Cholesterol Forms a lipid bilayer Embedded in bilayer • Transport • Enzyme, catalysis • Signal transduction • Attachment: extracellular matrix (ECM)-cytoskeleton • Recognition • Cell junction • Cell recognition • Attachment to external molecule or another cell Proteins OR General Structure The following specific types must indicate that they are proteins Integral Peripheral Pump Receptor Transport Recognition Tight junction Desmosomes Gap junctions Integrins Enzyme Channel • • Glycolipid/Glycoprotein Polypeptides; amino acids 2o , 3o , 4 o structure description Specific Structure • Integral, transmembrane, embedded; forms a channel • Peripheral, on surface • Structure fit to substrate or ligand • Carbohydrate (chains) linked to lipid/protein © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 (continued) (b) Explain how membranes participate in THREE of the following biological processes: (6 points maximum; 2 points maximum per section) Muscle contraction • Motor neuron or axon terminal releases neurotransmitter or acetylcholine (ACh) • ACh binds to receptors • Depolarization or Na + moves in through membrane channels or membrane depolarizes • Action potential propagates along cell membrane (sarcolemma) or T tubules • Depolarization changes permeability of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) or Ca 2 + released from SR • Ca 2+ active transport into SR (reuptake of Ca 2 + ) • Repolarization or maintenance of membrane potential (Na + /K + pump) • Smooth or cardiac muscle gap junctions directly transfer membrane potential between cells Fertilization of an egg • Part of the acrosomal reaction or sperm acrosome releases hydrolytic enzymes (by exocytosis) • Sperm binds to receptors on egg • Fusion of sperm and egg plasma membranes • Change in membrane electrical charge or fast block (depolarization) to prevent further fertilization (polyspermy) • Cortical reaction or slow block by exocytosis (prevents polyspermy) or “hardening” of membrane • Separation of fertilization membrane (envelope) • Fusion of egg and sperm nuclear membranes or nuclei Chemiosmotic production of ATP • Electron transport chain (ETC) in membrane pumps H + across membrane • H + gradient established across membrane • H + move through ATP synthase embedded in membrane to produce ATP • Membrane infolding increases surface area Intercellular signaling • Release of chemical signals by exocytosis • Receptors in membrane bind ligands or chemical signals or chemical signals pass through the membrane (examples: neurotransmitters, hormones, pheromones) • Ligand-gated ion channels opening/closing • Cascade of cellular events, including enzymatic reactions and second messengers (examples: G-proteins, cAMP, I P 3 , Ca 2 + ) • • Antibodies activate immune function Descriptions of gap junctions, plasmodesmata (communicating junctions) © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 Cephalization and the development of a brain were important steps in animal evolution. (a) Discuss the evolutionary origin and adaptive significance of cephalization in animal phyla. (3 points) • Cephalization (1 point) Defined: The concentration of the nervous system toward the anterior end of the organism OR Association: Cephalization tied to bilateral symmetry development • Origin (1 point) Origin identification: (Platyhelminthes/flatworms) OR Evolutionary progression of development • Adaptive Significance/Advantage (1 point) Efficient response to a stimulus (e.g., protection, predation, avoidance, movement toward or away) During movement sensory organs encounter the environment first (b) Describe the development of the nervous system in the vertebrate embryo. (4 points maximum) • Tissue of origin (1 point) o Ectoderm gives rise to the nervous system. • Processes of development (2 points) o Neurulation described (neural tube formation) Note: The notochord does not become the nerve cord. o Other nerve development processes Neural crest cells migrate to form the peripheral nervous system Anterior portion of the neural tube/cord bulges to become the brain or brain regions • Endpoints with structures described at the end of a process step of development (1 point) o The ectoderm folds into the neural crest/tube or dorsal nerve/spinal cord o Neural tube expands or develops into developmental brain region (e.g., fore-mid-hind brain, prosen-mesen-rhombencephalon) o Spinal column/vertebrae/cranium that protects the CNS • Signaling (1 point) o Notochord (mesodermal in origin) signals or directs development of neural tube (ectodermal in origin) o Hox genes, morphogens (diffusible developmental signal) © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 (continued) (c) At the sound of shattering glass, people quickly turn their heads. Discuss how the human nervous system functions to produce this tynme of response to an external stimulus. (5 points) • • • • • Stimulus/Intermediating Structure of Receptor Action (1 point) Stimulus (sound waves, pressure, heat, etc.) producing an appropriate receptor action (eardrum vibrating, cochlear hairs vibrating or bending, pressure receptors firing, heat receptors firing, etc.) Input/Sensory/Afferent (1 point) Signal direction toward the central nervous system Integration (1 point) Processing/Interpretation by CNS Interneurons/Association/Communicating/Internuncial Output/Motor/Efferent Response (1 point) Signal direction toward effectors (peripheral NS) or description of the response or autonomic nervous response (e.g., increase in blood pressure or heart rate, muscle contraction but not just turning of head) Possible Elaboration (1 point) Neural electrophysiology (e.g., action potential, neurotransmitters, synapse) Neuron structure and impulse pathway Sensory physiology © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 Compared with other terrestrial biomes, deserts have extremely low productivity. (a) Discuss how temperature, soil composition, and annual precipitation limit productivity in deserts. (3 points maximum) Abiotic factor (description) How abiotic factor limits productivity (must be linked) (1 point per factor) Temperature Increase in transpiration/evaporation Desiccation Loss of water from tissues/guard cells Not optimal temperatures Lowers photosynthetic rate Lowers plant growth Lowers biomass production PS/metabolic enzymes/proteins hindered Soil composition Low organic content/nutrients Low water retention Sandy Compacted soil Lowers photosynthetic rate/plant growth Lowers photosynthetic rate/plant growth Poor root anchorage limits plant growth Root limitations decrease photosynthesis Annual precipitation Low rainfall Seasonal rainfall Little water available for photosynthesis Lowers plant growth Period of high productivity/wildflowers Clear definition/discussion of productivity: e.g., a measure of the amount of biomass produced by autotrophs/photosynthetic organism/plants…amount of light energy converted to chemical energy by autotrophs per unit time...reduced community productivity (1 point) (b) Describe a four-organism food chain that might characterize a desert community, and identify the trophic level of each organism. (2 points) • • Written description of a minimum of 4 organisms (must include a producer/plant) (1 point) Clear identification of 4 distinct trophic levels of the organisms discussed (1 point) (producer → primary consumer → secondary consumer → tertiary consumer or top carnivore or decomposer or scavenger) © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 (continued) (c) Describe the results depicted in the graph. Explain one anatomical difference and one physiological difference between species A and B that account for the CO2 uptake patterns shown. Discuss the evolutionary significance of each difference. (6 points maximum) Graph interpretation (3 points) • Describe graph (plant A takes up CO2 during day AND plant B takes up CO2 at night) (1 point) • Species B as CAM (1 point) • Species A as C3 or species A as C 4 (1 point) Anatomical difference (1 point) • Species A is C 4 with bundle sheath/wreath/Kranz anatomy • Stomata location (pits/crypts, underside stems) linked to CO2 uptake • Stomata density linked to CO2 uptake • In species B/CAM vacuole/mesophyll of organic acids (malate) Physiological difference (1 point) • Species A stomata open during day • CAM/species B stomata open at night/closed during day • Species A uses C3 pathway; CAM/ species B uses C 4 pathway • C3 uses Rubisco/ C 4 uses PEP Carboxylase • Organic acids synthesis for CO2 storage • Carbon fixation during day vs. night Evolutionary significance (2 points) Discuss the evolutionary significance linked to each difference (2 points, 1 point per difference) e.g., increased evolutionary success due to decrease in water loss in the desert environment e.g., C 4 pathway circumvents the problem of photorespiration © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 A bacterial plasmid is 100 kb in length. The plasmid DNA was digested to completion with two restriction enzymes in three separate treatments: EcoRI, HaeIII, and EcoRI + HaeIII (double digest). The fragments were then separated with electrophoresis, as shown. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 (continued) (a) Using the circle provided, construct a labeled diagram of the restriction map of the plasmid. Explain how you developed your map. Construct a labeled map and explain (3 points maximum) E H 10 H 10 E 30 40 20 30 H E H 40 E 20 E = EcoRI Restriction Point H = HaeIII Restriction Point • Restriction sites correctly placed and kilobase sizes shown (2 points) • Explanation (1 point) (NO POINTS for explanation with incorrect or missing map OR for interpreting gel only) o trial and error discussion o restriction site within larger fragment © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). AP® BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 (continued) (b) Describe how: • Recombinant DNA technology could be used to insert a gene of interest into a bacterium • Recombinant bacteria could be identified • Expression of the gene of interest could be ensured Describe how to: (6 points maximum) (1) Insert gene of interest (4 points maximum) • Cut gene of interest from source and/or cut plasmid with restriction enzyme • Use SAME restriction enzyme on both • Anneal/ligate/mix/combine gene of interest with vector (plasmid/virus/phage) • “Sticky ends”/bp matches/complementarity • Treatment for competent cells ( CaCl 2 /heat shock); incubate together • Chemical modification can prevent restriction enzyme activity (e.g., methylation) • Gene = cDNA (without introns) to fit into plasmid (2) Identify recombinant bacteria (1 point) • Phenotypic selection (antibiotic resistance/blue-white colony selection/“glo” gene, product produced [e.g., insulin]) • Radioactively/fluorescently labeled probe (tag/dye) / mRNA • Electrophoresis of cut recombinant vs. original (gene/plasmid) OR with sequence comparison of recombinant vs. original (gene/plasmid) (Not bacterial genome) (3) Ensure expression of gene of interest (1 point) • Promoter [for prokaryote] • cDNA/removal of introns for prokaryotic expression • Operon (e.g., nutrient/arabinose induced) (c) Discuss how a specific genetically modified organism might provide a benefit for humans and at the same time pose a threat to a population or ecosystem. (3 points maximum) Discuss GM, benefit to humans, and threat to population/ecosystem • Nonhuman organism with specific, heritable GM trait • Plausible benefit to humans related to the GM trait • Plausible or unknown threat to population/ecosystem related to GM trait/modified organism © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/23/2009 for the course BIOLOGY 1101 taught by Professor Keith during the Winter '05 term at The University of Oklahoma.

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