Development 2009

Development 2009 - PrenatalDevelopmentandthe Newborn

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Prenatal Development and the Newborn How, over time, did we come to be who we are? From zygote to birth, development progresses in an orderly, though fragile, sequence.
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Conception A single sperm cell (male) penetrates the outer coating of the egg (female) and fuse to form one fertilized cell. LennartNil LennartNi sson/AlbertBonn lsson/AlbertBonn iersPublishingC ompany
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Genetics Genes are contained within chromosomes and make up the “blueprint” for the organism. The dominant gene is the one that will be expressed when 2 genes are different. The recessive gene will not be expressed when a dominant gene is present. B = dominant gene (brown eyes) Two brown-eyed parents with Bb b = recessive gene (blues eyes) Two brown eyed parents with Bb gene combination (heterozygous) Bb B B B B b Mom Dad Gene from sperm or egg b B b b b (Example: Genetic male or female) (Example: Having the physical appearance of a male or female) (Example: Genes may determine maximum height as an adult but malnutrition in infancy may stunt growth)
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Prenatal Development A zygote is a fertilized cell with 100 cells, which become increasingly diverse. At about 14 days the zygote turns into an embryo (a and b). LennartNils Biopho son/AlbertBonnier toAssociates/Ph sPublishingComp otoResearchers,I any nc. Ectoderm – skin, nervous system, eyes, ears, etc. Mesoderm– muscle, bone, blood vessels, etc. Endoderm Internal digestive and respiratory tract, etc.
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Prenatal Development At 9 weeks an embryo turns into a fetus (c and d). Teratogens are chemicals or viruses that can enter the placenta and harm the developing fetus. Lennart Nilsson/AlbertBon niersPublishingC ompany
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The Competent Newborn Infants are born with reflexes that aid survival, including the rooting reflex that helps them locate food.
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The Competent Newborn Offspring cries are important signals for parents to provide nourishment. In animals and in humans such cries are quickly attended to and relieved. Carlan L dAnnPurcell/C ightscapes,Inc.C orbis
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Infancy and Childhood Infancy and childhood span from birth to teenage years. During these years the individual grows physically, cognitively and socially. Stage Span Infancy Newborn to toddler Childhood Toddler to teenager Physical Development Infants’ psychological development depend on Infants psychological development depend on their biological development. To understand emergence of motor skills and memory we must understand the developing brain .
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Developing Brain The developing brain overproduces neurons. Peaking around 28 billion at 7 months, these neurons are pruned to 23 billion at birth. The greatest neuronal spurt is in the frontal lobe enabling the individual for rational thought. Maturation The development of the brain unfolds based on genetic instructions, leading various bodily and mental functions to occur in sequence— standing before walking, babbling before talking—this is called maturation .
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Development 2009 - PrenatalDevelopmentandthe Newborn

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