Flashcards - Exam 1

Flashcards - Exam 1 - Chapter 1 Psychology Determinism Free...

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Chapter 1 Psychology The systematic study of behavior and experience Determinism The assumption that everything that happens has a cause, or determinant, in the observable world Free Will The belief that behavior is caused by a person’s independent decisions Mind-brain Philosophical question of how experience elates to the brain Dualism The mind is separate from the brain but somehow controls the brain and therefore the rest of the body Monism The view that conscious experience is inseparable from the physical brain Nature-Nurture How do differences in behavior relate to differences in heredity and environment? Development psychologists study how behavior changes with age Learning and Motivation studies How behavior depend on the outcomes of past behaviors and current motivations Cognitive psychologist Studies thought and knowledge processes Biopsychologist (behavioral neurologist) Tries to explain behavior in terms of biological factors, such as electrical and chemical activities in the nervous system, the effects of drugs and hormones, genetics, and evolutionary pressures. Evolutionary psychologist Tries to explain behavior in terms of the evolutionary history of the species, including reasons evolution might have favored a tendency to act in particular ways Social psychologists Study how an individual influences other people and how the group influences an individual Cross- cultural psychology Compares the behavior of people from different cultures Clinical psychologists Have an advanced degree in psychology, with a specialty in understanding and helping people with psychological problems Psychiatry branch of medicine that deals with emotional disturbances Psychoanalysts Therapy providers who rely heavily on the theories and methods pioneered by Freud and later modified by others Clinical Social worker Similar to a clinical psychologist but with different training Counseling psychologists Help people with educational , vocational, marriage, health-related, and other decisions Forensic psychologists Those who provide advice and consultation to police, lawyers, courts, and other parts of the criminal justice system Industrial/organizational psychology The psychological study of people at work Ergonomist (human factors specialist) Attempts to facilitate the operation of machinery so that ordinary people can use it efficiently and safely School psychologists Specialists in the psychological condition of students William Wundt Set up the first psychology laboratory in Germany in 1879 Structuralism An attempt to describe the structures that compose the mind, particularly sensations, feelings, and images. (Edward Titchener) Functionalism Focuses on what the mind does, rather than what it is. Learning how people produce useful behaviors (William James also wrote Principles of Psychology) Psychophysical function The mathematical description of the relationship between the physical properties of a stimulus and its perceived properties Behaviorism A field in psychology that concentrates on observable, measurable behaviors,
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Flashcards - Exam 1 - Chapter 1 Psychology Determinism Free...

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