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Unformatted text preview: Section 5.2 Cognitive Development Habituation Decreased response to a repeated stimulus Dishabituation A change in a stimulus increases a previously habituated response Cross-sectional study Compares groups of individuals of different ages at the same time. Weakness: Difficulty obtaining equivalent samples at different ages Longitudinal study Follows a single group of individuals as they develop Weakness: (1) Takes several years (2) Not everyone who participates the first time is willing and available later (3) Difficulty separating the effects of age from the effects of changes in society Selective attrition The tendency for some kinds of people to be more likely that others to drop out of a study Sequential design Follows groups of people at different ages, studied at the same time, and then study them again at one or more later times Cohort effects The effects which result from people born in a given era that differs from those of other eras in many ways Cohort A group of people born at a particular time or a group of people from at a particular time or a group of people who entered an organization at a particular time. Schema An organized was of interacting with objects in the world Assimilation Applying an old schema to new objects or problems Accomodation Modifying an old schema to fit a new object or problem Equilibration The establishment of harmony or balane between the two Sensorimotor Stage At this age (0 to 2 years old), behavior is mostly simple motor responses to sensory stimuli. (1) Lack object permanence : the idea that objects continue to exist even when we do not see or hear them (2) Have a understanding of elementary physics principles, like the train will hit the block (3) Sense of self after about 1.5 years: Infants recognize themselves in the mirror Preoperational Stage At this age (2 to 7 years old) the child lacks operations, which are reversible mental processes. (1) Develop language (2) They have a sense of object permanence (3) Childrens thought is egocentric : a child sees the world as centered around himself or herself and cannot easily take another persons perspective. (4) Children 4 and up seem to assume that whatever they know, other people will know too. (5) Lacks, but gradually develops a theory of mind : an understanding that other people have a mind too and that each person knows some things that other people dont know. (6) Have trouble distinguishing play from reality/symbolism (7) Fail to understand conservation : that objects conserve such properties as number, length, volume, and area, and mass after changes in shape or arrangement of the objects. Concrete Operations At this age ( 7 to 11 years old) children perform mental operations on concrete objects but still have trouble with abstract or hypothetical ideas....
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This note was uploaded on 11/24/2009 for the course PSYCH 2 taught by Professor Don'tremember during the Spring '04 term at University of California, Berkeley.
- Spring '04