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Flashcards - Exam 4

Flashcards - Exam 4 - Exam 4 Section 13.1 Group Life...

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Exam 4 Section 13.1 Cooperation and Competition Group Life Advantages of Group life (1) Better defense against predators (2) Better ability to protect their food and supplies from potential raiders (3) Provides protection from sexually aggressive males (4) An extraordinary division of labor (5) We give to charity, volunteer our time for worthy projects, offer directions to a stranger, and help people who will never pay us back Altruistic behavior Accepting some cost or risk to help others Prisoner’s dilemma A situation where people choose between a cooperative act and a competitive act that benefits themselves but hurts others (1) They want a reputation for being fair and helpful. As a result other people will be pleased to deal with them and offer them help when they need it. (2) We learn to cooperate because other who cooperate will punish us if we don’t Effective Strategies If you and another person play repeatedly, the strategy is reciprocity, also called “tit for tat”” Start with the cooperate move. If the other person makes a compete move, retaliate with a compete move on your next turn. (1) Groups are more likely to compete with one another than cooperate Altruistic punishment The punisher gains nothing, except the feeling of justice. The punished person might learn a lesson, but if so, the benefit is to the next group of people that he or she plays with. Most people do administer punishments, and the result is a level of cooperation across almost all individuals. Diffusion of responsibility We tend to feel less responsibility to act when other people are equally able to act Pluralistic ignorance A situation in which people say nothing and each person falsely assumes that everyone else has a better informed opinion. Notice that the presence of other people exerts both normative and informational influences: Their inactivity implies that doing nothing is acceptable (a norm) and that
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the situation is not an emergency (information). Social Loafing The tendency to “loaf” (or work less hard) when sharing work with other people. (1) Social loafing is rare in sports teams. The reason is that observers and teammates watch your performance. Kohlberg’s Moral Reasoning (1) Kohlberg argued that moral reasoning should not be evaluated according to someone’s decision but according to the reasons behind it. (2) Moral dilemmas : problems that pit one moral against another (3) People seldom skip a stage or revert to an earlier stage after reaching a higher one. Although people fluctuate from one time to another, we classify people in terms of their average level. Limitations to Kohlberg’s Views (1) Justice v. caring orientations: Moral reasoning is not centered around justice (2) The relationship between moral reasoning and behavior: His approach concentrated on moral reasoning, not behavior.
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