BI379_F09_Exam_2

BI379_F09_Exam_2 - BI379 F09 Exam 2 Finished exam is due by...

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BI379 F09 Exam 2 November 18, 2009 Finished exam is due by 5 PM on Monday, November 23. Please write it on the computer (not by hand). You may send it in by e-mail. I. I'm going to reverse the process we've been doing with papers. Normally, I pick a paper and ask you questions about it. Now, I want you to find a paper for me. The main effort for this problem will be finding a good (and understandable) paper. Kathiresan, S., et. al. “Six new loci associated with blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides in humans.” Nature Genetics, 40, ( 2008). A genome-wide association study showed SNPs (all introns) at six new loci associated with concentrations of LDL cholesterol, HDL and triglycerides. The authors were trying to assess how lipid-associated SNPs regulate local gene expression, so they measured mRNA transcript levels and found only one SNP was associated with transcript levels of three genes. The G-allele of SNP rs599839 was related to LDL cholesterol, and the C allele of SNP rs646776 was found to lower LDL cholesterol because it induced sortilin expression. Also found a related article on the same topic: Erdmann, J. et. al. “New susceptibility locus for coronary artery disease on chromosome 3q22.3.” Nature Genetics, 41, ( 2009). Increasing susceptibility for coronary artery disease was associated with SNP rs9818870 in MRAS on 3q22.3. These SNPs were found in a clustered LD block that covered the coding region of certain genes. Stage 1 of the study was to genotype autosomal SNPs with premature disease onset and positive family history of 1,298 Germans, evaluated by in silico analysis.
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II. In the very early divisions of a vertebrate embryo, the cells retain the ability to produce virtually every cell type of the body (see “regulative development” if interested). This ability soon disappears as cells begin to follow distinct paths of differentiation. Understanding and
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