Lecture28-2009-Li

Lecture28-2009-Li - 1 Fatty Acid Breakdown I Lecture 28...

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1 Fatty Acid Breakdown I Lecture 28 Chapter 20-1 and 2 Office hours: 11 am to noon Monday, Wednesday & Friday CMM Room 142 Phone: 632-1401 Huilin.Li@StonyBrook.edu
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2 Fatty Acids: Long alkyl chains with carboxylic acid at one end. General forumula: CH 3 -(CH 2 ) n -COO - (number from carboxylate) Stearic acid: saturated C18 18:0 Oleic acid: unsaturated C18 18:1 9 (all natural double bonds are cis!) Linoleic acid: C18, two unsaturations 18:2 9 12 Linolenic acid: C18, three unsaturations 18:3 9 12 15 α β γ ϖ Alternative numbering
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3 Fatty acid is one type of lipid choline
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4 Cis and Trans Fatty Acids 2D sketch 3D structure
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5 Table 9-1 1. ~ 40 different fatty acids occur naturally 2. Fatty acids contain an even number of C atoms, typically 12 - 20 atoms. 3. Saturated fatty acids have much higher mp than unsaturated Human 37°C
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6 Saturated fats have higher melting points than unsaturated fats. This can be explained in terms of differences in the packing of the molecules in the solid state. The long hydrocarbon chains in saturated fat molecules can be packed quite closely together which maximizes the van der Waals forces. Unsaturated fats (oils) contain one or more double bond in cis configuration. This introduces a 'kink' into the hydrocarbon chain since there is restricted rotation around this bond. This makes close packing much more difficult The intermolecular forces are weaker and so Unsaturated fats have lower melting points than saturated fats. ΔG=ΔH-TS
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7 Functions of Fatty Acids in Mammals Membrane components: Building blocks for phospholipids, glycolipids. Fuel molecules for energy storage Post-translational modification of proteins. Causes protein to associate with membranes. Serve as hormones and second messengers Prostaglandins are derived from Arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) Prostaglandins have wide range of biological effects: controlling blood pressure and controlling inflammation. blood clotting, kidney function, reproductive system target to produce new drugs.
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8 Fatty acids are stored as triacylglycerol (trigyceride): Page 248 propane-1,2,3-triol Tri-ester formed from condensation of glycerol and fatty acid Triglycerides are the most common type of fat and make up about 95% of the lipids in food and in our bodies
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9 Page 678 ?
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10 Triglycerides are stored in specialized cells: Adipocytes = fat cells Fat droplet
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Lecture28-2009-Li - 1 Fatty Acid Breakdown I Lecture 28...

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