chapter1 - Chapter 1 Computer Abstractions and Technology...

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Chapter 1 Computer Abstractions and Technology
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Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 2 The Computer Revolution Progress in computer technology Underpinned by Moore’s Law Makes novel applications feasible Computers in automobiles Cell phones Human genome project World Wide Web Search Engines Computers are pervasive §1.1 Introduction
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Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 3 Classes of Computers Desktop computers General purpose, variety of software Subject to cost/performance tradeoff Server computers Network based High capacity, performance, reliability Range from small servers to building sized Embedded computers Hidden as components of systems Stringent power/performance/cost constraints
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Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 4 The Processor Market
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CSCI-365 Coordination of many levels (layers) of abstraction I/O system Processor Compiler Operating System (Mac OSX) Application (ex: browser) Digital Design Circuit Design Instruction Set Architecture Datapath & Control transistors Memory Hardware Software Assembler What is CSCI-365?
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Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 6 What You Will Learn How programs are translated into the machine language And how the hardware executes them The hardware/software interface What determines program performance And how it can be improved How hardware designers improve performance What is parallel processing
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Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 7 Understanding Performance Algorithm Determines number of operations executed Programming language, compiler, architecture Determine number of machine instructions executed per operation Processor and memory system Determine how fast instructions are executed I/O system (including OS) Determines how fast I/O operations are executed
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Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 8 Below Your Program Application software Written in high-level language System software Compiler: translates HLL code to machine code Operating System: service code Handling input/output Managing memory and storage Scheduling tasks & sharing resources Hardware Processor, memory, I/O controllers §1.2 Below Your Program
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Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 9 Levels of Program Code High-level language Level of abstraction closer to problem domain Provides for productivity and portability Assembly language Textual representation of instructions Hardware representation Binary digits (bits) Encoded instructions and data
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Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 10 Components of a Computer Same components for all kinds of computer Desktop, server, embedded Input/output includes User-interface devices Display, keyboard, mouse Storage devices Hard disk, CD/DVD, flash Network adapters For communicating with other computers §1.3 Under the Covers The BIG Picture
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Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 11 Anatomy of a Computer Output device Input device Input device Network cable
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