3-06-07 CatMnemHO

3-06-07 CatMnemHO - Cognition Categorization and Mnemonics...

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     Cognition Categorization and Mnemonics March 2, 2007
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    Memory for Instances People do not just remember individual  instances but related instances  together, such as things that are  perceptually similar.  For example, a  whole set of similar animals are called  “birds.” 
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    Categorization Issues Induction of categories. How are psychological categories formed? Category structure. Assignment of instances to categories. How are instances of objects assigned to  one category or another?
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    Types of Categories Perceptual. Most objects (rocks, animals, etc.) Functional. Tools, furniture, weapon, occupational, etc. Kinship. Mother, uncle, etc. Abstract. Justice, etc. Categories defined by enumeration. 26 letters of the alphabet.
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    Perceptual Similarity Some categories are determined by how the  perceptual system organizes the inputs. As a result of perceptual organization, some  features are more salient than others. Salient features make categorization easy. Formed by simple observation. Formed spontaneously, even without instructions to do so  (Fried and Holyoak, 1984). Examples: Color categories, “chair,” “table,” “bird.”
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    Color Categories The work of Eleanor Rosch: Focal colors. Consistent. Colors determine category (not vice versa). Boundary colors. Kay and McDaniel (1978).
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    Natural Rectangle Categories Higher than wider versus wider than  higher. Defined by “cut points” along salient  dimensions. May be sorted without feedback.
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    Natural rectangle categories: higher  than wider versus wider than higher.   May be sorted without feedback.
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    Nose is more salient feature than  ears; so it determines category
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    Defining features Categories that are initially perceptual 
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2008 for the course PSYCH 340 taught by Professor Ackroff during the Spring '07 term at Rutgers.

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3-06-07 CatMnemHO - Cognition Categorization and Mnemonics...

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