biol_1322_ch6

biol_1322_ch6 - Protein: Amino Acids Chapter 6...

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1 Protein: Amino Acids Chapter 6 Characteristics of Proteins • Made up of amino acids • Contains: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen • There are 10,000-50,000 proteins in the body Amino Acid Structure Functions of Proteins in the Body • Growth and Maintenance (collagen, muscle) • Formation of enzymes • Fluid balance – proteins attract water • Acid/base balance – act as buffers • Antibody formation • Hormone synthesis • Act as transport protein • Blood clotting – fibrin, collagen • Vision – opsin • Stored as fat if consumed in excess! Protein Functions Cont: • The role of protein is not to provide body protein directly, but to supply the amino acids for the body to make its own proteins • Protein is NOT intended to be a primary energy source, but is used to build muscle mass and other protein structures in the body 9 Essential Amino Acids • Histidine • Isoleucine • Leucine • Lysine • Methionine • Phenylalanine • Threonine • Tryptophan • Valine • Must be consumed in the diet – body does not make them in sufficient quantities • Found in foods that come from animal sources • Plant proteins may be combined to make complete proteins containing these essential amino acids
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2 11 Non-Essential Amino Acids • Alanine • Arginine • Asparagine • Aspartic acid • Cysteine • Glutamic acid • Glutamine •G l y c i n e • Proline •S e r i n e • Tyrosine • Body can make these amino acids as long as there is sufficient nitrogen Summary of Protein Digestion A Preview of Protein Metabolism • Protein turnover – the degradation and synthesis of endogenous protein. • When proteins break down, they free amino acids to join the general circulation…what happens next? – Recycled to make new proteins –OR – Nitrogen is removed and remaining part of amino acid is used for energy ( Deamination: NH 2 is removed to make urea) Half Life of Body Proteins • Red Blood Cell – 120 days • Intestinal Mucosal Cell - <1 day • Liver Cells – very long half life • Collagen – several 100 days • Muscle protein – 100 days Protein Synthesis
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biol_1322_ch6 - Protein: Amino Acids Chapter 6...

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