McKenzie_Ch_05 - Measurement, Measures, Data Collection,...

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Measurement, Measures, Data Collection, and Sampling Chapter 5
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Measurement defined - the process of assigning numbers or labels to objects, events, or people, according to a particular set of rules (Kerlinger, 1986) That is… Specifying objects to be measured Deciding on the numbers to use Creating rules for assigning numbers to objects (Green & Lewis, 1986)
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Categories of Measures Quantitative measures - use pre- determined questions or observational indicators & established response items; transformed to numerical data Qualitative measures - produce data in language of the subjects; labels or categories are often narrative
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Levels of Measurement Nominal - data into categories; mutually exclusive; categories are exhaustive Ordinal - data into categories; mutually exclusive & exhaustive; but also rank ordered; can’t measure distance between categories Interval - data into categories; mutually exclusive & exhaustive; rank orders; can measure distance between categories; no absolute zero Ratio - data into categories; mutually exclusive & exhaustive; rank orders; can measure distance between categories; there is an absolute zero Interval & ratio also called numerical data
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Here is an example questionnaire, what level of data do each of these questions generate? What is your sex? In what state do your currently live? In what country were you born? Rank order the following health conditions from most serious to least serious Fractured arm A cold Nonfatal heart attack
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0-------------------------------5------------------------------10 Worst Perfect health health Questionnaire (con’t.) I would feel comfortable planning a health promotion program for a health agency SA A N D SD Place in order of least important to most important the following environmental concerns - acid rain, recycling, pollution Overall, how would you rate your health?
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Questionnaire (con’t.) What was the approximate temperature when you got up this morning? How old are you? 0-20 years 21-40 years 41-60 years 61+ years The last time it was checked, what was your blood pressure? How old were you (in years) on your last birthday?
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Types of Measures Demographic characteristics Awareness - ex. Please list… Knowledge Constructed response items - ex. Essay, completion Selected response items - ex. matching, true-false, multiple choice Attitudes Summated rating scales - ex. Likert scales
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Attitudes (continued) Cumulative scales (useful with controversial topics) - ex. Progressive choice scales Value scales - ex. Value statement then select “good/bad” or “agree/disagree” Sematic differential - ex. Anchored scales good ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ bad Paired comparison (forced choice) - ex. Choose between two statements
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This note was uploaded on 11/29/2009 for the course HLTH 440 taught by Professor Joshipraphul during the Spring '09 term at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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McKenzie_Ch_05 - Measurement, Measures, Data Collection,...

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