prelim 1 key - 
 
 
 


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Unformatted text preview: 
 
 
 
 11.
The
critical
missing
component
of
this
study
is
a
consideration
of
the
historical
(=
 evolutionary;
phylogenetic)
similarities
among
these
bird
species,
and
the
use
of
 comparative
analysis
(=
phylogenetic)
methods
to
take
those
relationships
into
account
 when
testing
for
a
relationship
between
wing
length
and
flight
speed.
 
 The
problem
here
is
that
species
can
be
similar
for
two
reasons:
convergent
responses
to
a
 similar
environment
(=
adaptation),
or
by
inheriting
a
trait
from
a
common
ancestor.
In
 this
graph
there
are
two
clusters
of
points;
it
is
very
possible
that
the
upper
right
cluster
is
 one
group
of
closely
related
species
(say,
‘falcons’)
that
all
have
long
wings
and
fast
flying,
 whereas
the
lower
left
cluster
is
a
different
group
of
closely
related
species
(say,
‘dodos’)
 with
short
wings
and
slow
flight.

In
this
case,
the
association
of
long
wings
and
fast
flight
 has
arisen
only
once,
and
this
sample
size
of
only
one
is
very
weak
support
for
a
general
 adaptive
association
between
these
traits.
 
 Limited
partial
credit
for
some
answers
involving
violations
of
the
postulates
of
natural
 selection
(testing
for
heritability,
etc.).
As
this
problem
involves
comparisons
among
 species,
the
kinds
of
tests
that
we
would
use
to
explore
adaptation
within
a
population
are
 not
very
relevant
here.
 
 
 12.
This
IS
an
example
of
evolution
—
mean
beak
size
did
change
between
generations
—
 but
it
IS
NOT
a
good
example
of
evolution
via
natural
selection.
One
of
the
fundamental
 postulates
of
natural
selection
is
that
fitness
must
be
associated
with
a
phenotype.
In
this
 scenario,
beak
size
had
nothing
to
do
with
whether
the
birds
lived
or
died;
it
just
happened
 by
chance
that
more
large‐beaked
birds
were
killed.

As
the
condition
of
an
actual
 association
between
beak
size
and
fitness
is
not
met,
natural
selection
is
not
responsible
for
 the
observed
changes
in
beak
size
among
generations
of
finches.
 
 
 13.
To
determine
whether
the
coal
seams
are
of
exactly
the
same
age,
it
is
necessary
to
 place
each
of
them
in
a
stratigraphic
series
in
relation
to
the
rocks
above
and
below
them
 on
each
hill,
and
then
to
relate
those
two
stratigraphic
columns
from
the
two
hillsides.
This
 1. B
 2. D
 3. A
 4. C
 5. E
 6. D
 7. B
 8. E
 9. C
 10. A
 is
likely
accomplished
by
looking
at
the
distribution
of
fossils
within
each
stratigraphic
 series,
particularly
‘index
fossils’,
which
are
indicative
of
a
precisely
known
range
of
time.
 
 14.

 A.
 i. Homoplasy:
1
and
7
 ii. Synapomorphy:
3,5,6,7,9
 iii. Symplesiomorphy:
1,2,3,4,5,7,8
 
 B.
ii.
Crocodile
 
 C.
tree
length
=
12
 
 Extra
credit:
Tilapia
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/27/2009 for the course BIOEE 2780 at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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