1057-RG_3-09 - Chem 1057 J Walcott CENTER FOR LEARNING AND...

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Chem 1057 CENTER FOR LEARNING AND TEACHING J. Walcott LEARNING STRATEGIES CENTER Fall 2009 Review Guide #3 Lectures: 9/7/09 – 9/11/09 Chapter 2 I. Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons are compounds that contain only the elements carbon and hydrogen. Alkanes are aliphatic hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds. The carbon-carbons bonds are sp 3 - sp 3 σ bonds and the carbon-hydrogen bonds are sp 3 -1 s σ bonds. II. Alkanes A. Alkane Isomers 1. Isomers are compounds with the same number and kinds of atoms. They have the same molecular formulas – not the same molecular structure. 2. Constitutiona l (structural) isomers have the same molecular formula but a different connectivity. One has to make and break bonds to interconvert constitutional isomers. They have different names. 3. Stereoisomers have the same molecular formula and the same connectivity but their arrangement of atoms in space differs. More on this topic will come later. B. Nomenclature 1. Know the names of the unbranched alkanes to 10 carbons. Unbranched alkane chains are sometimes called normal alkanes, or n-alkanes. The general molecular formula of an acyclic alkane is C n H 2n+2 , where n is the number of carbon atoms. The number of H atoms decreases by 2 for each ring and/or each double bond in the structure. 2. Understand the IUPAC rules used in assigning the names of substituents to an alkane. You should be able to apply the rules discussed in lecture. Some general rules follow. Please refer to your class notes for specific examples. a. Find the longest continuous carbon chain (principal chain) with the most number of substituents. b.
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1057-RG_3-09 - Chem 1057 J Walcott CENTER FOR LEARNING AND...

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