2-13-07 AttentionAndDividedAttentionHO

2-13-07 AttentionAndDividedAttentionHO - Cognition:...

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    Cognition:  Attention  (Overview) Selective Attention (Voluntary) Alerting (Reflexive) February 13, 2007
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    Selective Attention Specification Activate representation (logogen) of target (so that it is in  working memory). Search Input from many locations on the receptive field is compared  with the activated representation of the target. Orientation If a sufficient match is found, processing is shifted to the  location of the matching input for further analysis by inhibiting input from all other locations, and  facilitating input from that location (gate model). The shift takes about 100 milliseconds regardless of  location.
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    Results Of Selective Attention Differences between attended and unattended input: 1. Attended input receives highest priority for processing. So it receives all of the available capacity it needs. 2. Attended input enters awareness/working memory . 3. It is possible to make a voluntary response to an attended input. 4. It is possible to remember an attended input.
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    Broadbent’s Filter Theory Input Channels Selective Filter Limited Capacity Decision Channel Stimuli Long-term Memory Store Responses (after Triesman)
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    Selective Attention System Thalamus Pulvinar nucleus Lateral geniculate nucleus Superior Colliculus Visual & Auditory Cortex Basal Ganglia Prefrontal Cortex, Parietal Cortex, Cyngulate Gyrus Reticular Formation
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    Specification In attention, there is an activation  (priming) of the target logogen by the  frontal system (frontal cortex, anterior  cyngulate gyrus, basal ganglia).
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    Selective Attention - Search Early selection   (or  stimulus  selection based on perceptual organization. Late selection  (or  response  selection )  based on memory or meaning.
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    Early visual selection occurs  for Contrast Location Features Color Motion A novel pattern embedded among a  repeated, familiar pattern
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    Selective Attention System Features are selected in the visual  cortex Locations are shifted through loop  containing parietal cortex and thalamus Gates are opened and closed by frontal  system including cortex and anterior  cyngulate gyrus.
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    Frontal Parietal Space Location Form Thalamus Superior Collicus Pulvinar nucleus Visual Early Selection
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    Novelty Detection The perceptual system  is biased to give an  enhanced response to a  novel input.
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2-13-07 AttentionAndDividedAttentionHO - Cognition:...

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