NPB.101.Endocrinology4.09

NPB.101.Endocrinology4.09 - Announcements Powerpoint that...

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Announcements Powerpoint that was problematic for some students has been reformatted as NPB.101.Endocrinology2.09.ppt and pdf An outline for the final exam, Wingfield lectures – endocrinology section only, is now on the web site as NPB.101.Final1.Wingfield.2009.doc and pdf
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Endocrinology 4 Endocrine Glands That are Not Primary Targets of the Anterior Pituitary Gastrointestinal Hormones, Pancreas and Metabolism NPB 101, Autumn 2009
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Food intake Absorbable units Dietary protein Dietary carbohydrate Dietary tri- glyceride fat D I G E S T I O N Amino acids Glucose Fatty acids Mono- glycerides A B S O R P T I O N
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Metabolic pool in body Body proteins (structural or secretory ) Amino acids Urea, urinary excretion Storage, structural, and functional macromolecules in cells Glycogen storage Triglycerides in adipose tissue stores (fat) Glucose Fatty acids Oxidation to CO 2 + H 2 O + ATP (energy). Expired (elimination from body) Use as metabolic fuel in cells Anabolic Catabolic
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Anatomy of gastrointestinal (stomach and bowel) tract. Note that digestive juices from the pancreas and liver enter small bowel at the duodenum. The proximal 2/5 of small bowel is called the jejunum. The distal 3/5 is called the ileum. The small bowel empties into the colon (large bowel). © S. Brett
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Gall bladder stores and releases bile into intestine. Pancreas releases enzymes and bicarbonate into intestine www.eusimaging.com/conditions/con_bile_lg.html
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This is the normal appearance of the stomach, that has been opened along the greater curvature. The esophagus is at the left. In the fundus can be seen the lesser curvature. Just beyond the antrum is the pylorus emptying into the Frst portion of duodenum is at the lower right. The normal appearance of the gastric fundus on upper GI endoscopy is shown below at the left, with the normal duodenal appearance at the right.
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Small intestine showing blood supply to villi and smooth muscle lining
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Gastrointestinal Hormones Gastrin (secretory cells in stomach and duodenum) Secretin (upper small intestine) Cholecystokinin (upper small intestine) Gastric-inhibitory peptide (upper small intestine) Vasoactive intestinal peptide (entire gut) Substance P (entire gut) Motilin (small intestine) Glucagon-like peptide (entire intestine) Bombesin (stomach, duodenum) Neurotensin (lower small intestine) Somatostatin (stomach) Pancreatic polypeptide (small intestine) Glucagon (stomach) Ghrelin (stomach)
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Gastrin, frog stomach Gastrin, avian proventriculus Secretin cell, duodenum
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Different forms of gastrin
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Gastrin Edkins, 1905 - extract from antral region of stomach stimulated acid secretion Synthesized by G-cells Only GI hormone stimulated directly by a neural mechanism Control of secretion by: vagus, protein as peptides or amino acids, stomach distension (meal or balloon), hypertonicity, alcohol Cimetidine/Omeprazole inhibit acid secretion huge increase serum gastrin due to loss of feedback loop
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Gastrin Oxyntic cells G cells Vagus H + + + Actions: gastric acid, pancreatic enzymes, trophic effects Antrectomy leads to wasting of gut mucosa - prevented by exogenous gastrin Binds to CCK-B receptor. G protein - IP3/DAG
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NPB.101.Endocrinology4.09 - Announcements Powerpoint that...

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