Survival is the fundamental goal of state, achieve by security or maximation
Offense realism, and defensive realism, self-help is the fundamental
constraint of how to achieve security. If you play this principle, fear rather
then satisfaction is the common fait of countries around the world. Liberal
ideals were first articulated: liberalism is the attempt to mitigate conflicts, to
tame power, to transform international politics.
Arbitrary intrusion into the sphere of individual liberty
The form of a liberal state is rather diverse, capitalism to social
democracy, from constitution monarchy to republics, from
presidential regimes to parliamentary ones. Despite the variety of
organizations, liberalism in the world is about self-restraint
moderation, compromise and peace. Immediately you can see that the
principles of liberalism when projected in the international arena,
seem to be in opposition, of the nature of international politics.
It’s impossible to achieve something like liberal internationality. We
are in the presence of two contrary logics. Liberalism= weak
individual protected against the damiety. At the domestic level, the
anarchy is excluded, yet between states, anarchy is the rule.
Liberalism= state is the solution, in international affairs= state is the
Liberal state in world politics are sometimes
perceived as weak states. They don’t have the same capacity and
strength to propose interest on others. During the cold war, soviet
union was far more powerful then the liberal ones, after 911, the
debate emerged by the weakness of open democracy to terrorist
attacks. An open western democracy allowed a small group like al
quada, by using means developed by western systems. Not only in
US, but other places, some liberties were cut, to protect western
democracies from terrorism. The debate was raging, over individual
liberty, and the requirement of international affairs. How to
accommodate individual liberties, with the threat of terrorism.
Ex. In the U.K freedom of speech, after the terrorist attack in London,
the right was taint. Different countries disagree on the very existence
of the very content of those values.
The conception of democracy as we understand it, it restrained to very
few countries, when we try to impose a modern society, most of the
time we fail. The human right issues that we take for granted
shared by everyone in the planet. (the issue of women rights in
Islamic society) cannon said restraining from the use of force, it