chapter 4 notes - CHAPTER 4 Distinguish between an...

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CHAPTER 4 Distinguish between an intrapsychic and an interpsychic emphasis in personality theorizing The theories of Alfred Adler and Sullivan marks a shift from a stress on intrapsychic( WITHIN the psyche) phenomena such as Freud and Jung dealt with, to an appreciation of interpsychic (interpersonal) relations. The human person emerges as a social and cultural creature rather than a sexual and biological one. Individual psychology-interested in investigation the uniqueness of the person. Maintained that the individual was indivisible and must be studied as a whole. Adler’s theory holds that understanding a particular individual entails comprehending his or her attitude in relation to the world. According to Adler we are motivated by social interests and our primary life problems are social ones 2. Explain what Adler meant by social interest and finalism and give examples of fictional finalism. Adler believed that human beings have an innate urge-social interest to adapt to the conditions of the environment. The principle of finalism means that the individuals are oriented toward goals that guide their behavior. Social interest-. It refers to the urge in human nature to adapt oneself to the conditions of the social environment. It expresses itself subjectively in one’s consciousness of having something in common with other people and of being one of them. It expresses itself objectively in cooperation with others toward the betterment o human society. While common to all, social interest does not automatically emerge nor does it invariably find constructive expression. It must be nurtured and cultivated. Finalism- adder emphasized the purposefulness of human behavior by recognizing that the motivation l force of every human action is the goal or future orientation of that action. Thus Adler agreed with Jung that teleology is necessary for a full understanding of personality. For Adler the goal that the individual pursues is the decisive factor and he called this concept of goal orientation the principle of finalism. Adler suggested that many of guiding goals are fictions. he did not equate fiction with falseness; rather he indicated that we cannot know whether or not our goals are true or false because there is no way to scientifically test them. We are unable to have a complete understanding of things as they really are, so we structure our own idea of reality. Fictions are an individual’s or groups interpretations of the events of the world. We may assume that it is best to tell the truth that all people are basically good or that hard work will eventually
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pay off. fictional finalisms. People create fiction or guiding idea and then behave as if their goals were true. A fiction maybe health or unhealthy, the goal should be judged according to its usefulness. Healthy individuals continually examine the effectiveness of their fictions and alter their goals when they are no longer useful. They maintain their fictions in a state of flux in order to meet the demands of reality. 3. Describe how the goal of superiority arises from inferiority feelings and leads to an
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chapter 4 notes - CHAPTER 4 Distinguish between an...

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