3454chapter10 - 1. Hennig argumentation -- considers...

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F. species concepts 1. biological species concept -- a reproductively isolated population 2. evolutionary species concept -- an evolving lineage -- evolutionary trajectory. .. 3. ecological species concept -- a lineage that occupies a minimally different adaptive zone from that of any other lineage in its range and which evolves separately from all lineages out- side its range. 4. phylogenetic species concept -- the smallest monophyletic group of organisms. G. Speciation 1. reproductive barriers -- 2. gene flow
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3. allopatric speciation -- vicariance -- founder effect -- cryptic species --seem really similar 4. sympatric speciation -- polyploidy 5. scientific name -- binomial nomenclature -- Linnaean system. -- genus, specific epithet. 6. species exhibit geographic range or distribu- tions, as well as temporal distributions. .. 7. cosmopolitan -- widespread species; 8. endemic -- found only in small area H. Basic Cladistics
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Unformatted text preview: 1. Hennig argumentation -- considers information for each character one at a time. adding char-acters to the tree one by one. 1 2 3 4 5 outgroup A 1 B 1 1 1 C 1 1 1 1 note that characters 5, 2, and 3 are autapo-morphies, and do not help us construct the tree. 2. Wagner method -- compares each species to the outgroup, and adds the species to the tree one at a time, so as to minimize the number of state changes. example: A B C Outgroup 1 4 3 2 5 1 2 3 4 5 steps outgroup A 1 1 B 1 1 1 3 C 1 1 1 1 4 note that the first choice is more parsimonious A B C Outgroup 10000 A Outgroup B A Outgroup 4 C B A Outgroup 4 4 3. Another example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 steps outgroup A 1 1 1 1 4 B 1 1 1 3 C 1 1 2 D 1 1 1 1 1 5 E 1 1 1 1 1 5...
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This note was uploaded on 11/29/2009 for the course BIOL 3454 taught by Professor Lab during the Spring '08 term at UT Arlington.

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3454chapter10 - 1. Hennig argumentation -- considers...

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