Unformatted text preview: Discovering Computers 2009 Chapter 11 Computer Security, Ethics and Privacy Chapter 11 Objectives
Describe the types of computer security risks Discuss the types of devices available that protect computers from system failure Explain the options available for backing up computer resources Identify risks and safeguards associated with wireless communications Recognize issues related to information accuracy, rights, and conduct Discuss issues surrounding information privacy Discuss ways to prevent health-related disorders and injuries due to computer use Identify ways to safeguard against computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, botnets, denial of service attacks, back doors, and spoofing Discuss techniques to prevent unauthorized computer access and use Identify safeguards against hardware theft and vandalism Explain the ways software manufacturers protect against software piracy Define encryption and explain why it is necessary Next Computer Security Risks
What is a computer security risk?
Ø Event or action that causes loss of or damage to computer system Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Computer Emergency Response Team Coordination Center p. 556 - 558 Fig. below Chapter 11 11-1 Next Internet and Network Attacks
What are viruses, worms, and Trojan horses?
Virus is a potentially damaging computer program Worm copies itself repeatedly, using up resources and possibly shutting down computer or network Trojan horse hides within or looks like legitimate program until triggered Payload (destructive event) that is delivered Can spread and damage files Does not replicate itself on other computers p. 558 Next Internet and Network Attacks
How can a virus spread through an e-mail message?
Step 1. Unscrupulous programmers create a virus program that deletes all files. They hide the virus in a picture and attach the picture to an e-mail message. Step 2. They use the Internet to send the e-mail message to thousands of users around the world. Step 3b. Other users do not Step 3a. Some users open the attachment and their computers become infected with the virus. recognize the name of the sender of the e-mail message. These users do not open the e-mail message - instead they delete the e-mail message. These users’ computers are not infected with the virus. p. 559 Fig. 11-2 Next Internet and Network Attacks CLICK TO START Next Internet and Network Attacks
How can you protect your system from a macro virus?
Ø Set macro security level in applications that allow you to write macros Set security level so that warning displays that document contains macro
§ Ø Macros are instructions saved in an application, such as word processing or spreadsheet program p. 560 Fig. 11-3 Next Internet and Network Attacks
What is an antivirus program?
Ø Ø Identifies and removes computer viruses Most also protect against worms , Trojan horses, and spyware p. 560 - 561 Fig. 11-4 Next Internet and Network Attacks
What is a virus signature?
Ø Specific pattern of virus code
§ Also called virus definition Ø Antivirus programs look for virus signatures p. 561 Fig. 11-5 Next Internet and Network Attacks
How does an antivirus program inoculate a program file?
Records information about program such as file size and creation Uses date Attempts information to remove to detect if any detected virus tampers virus with file Quarantines infected files that it cannot Keeps file remove in separate
area of hard disk
Next Internet and Network Attacks
What are some tips for preventing virus, worm, and Trojan horse infections?
Never start a computer with removable media inserted Install an antivirus program on all of your computers Never open an e-mail attachment unless you are expecting it and it is from a trusted source If the antivirus program flags an e-mail attachment as infected, delete the attachment immediately
Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Virus Hoaxes below p. 562 Chapter 11 Check all downloaded programs for viruses, worms, or Trojan horses Install a personal firewall program Next Internet and Network Attacks
What are a denial of service attack, back door and spoofing?
A denial of service attack is an assault which disrupts computer access to an Internet service such as the Web or e-mail A back door is a program or set of instructions in a program that allow users to bypass security controls when accessing a computer resource Spoofing is a technique intruders use to make their network or Internet transmission appear legitimate to a victim computer or network p. 562 - 563 Next Internet and Network Attacks
What is a firewall?
Ø Security system consisting of hardware and/or software that prevents unauthorized intrusion p. 563 Fig. 11-7 Next Internet and Network Attacks
What is a personal firewall?
Ø Ø Ø Program that protects personal computer and its data from unauthorized intrusions Monitors transmissions to and from computer Informs you of attempted intrusion p. 564 Fig. 11-8 Next Unauthorized Access and Use
How can companies protect against hackers?
Intrusion detection software analyzes network traffic, assesses system vulnerabilities, and identifies intrusions and suspicious behavior Access control defines who can access computer and what actions they can take Audit trail records access attempts p. 564 - 565 Next Unauthorized Access and Use
What are other ways to protect your personal computer?
Ø Disable file, folder, and printer sharing on Internet connection p. 565 Fig. 11-9 Next Unauthorized Access and Use
What is a user name?
Ø Ø Unique combination of characters that identifies user Password is private combination of characters associated with the user name that allows access to computer resources Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click CAPTCHAs below Chapter 11p. 566 Fig. 11-10 Next Unauthorized Access and Use
How can you make your password more secure?
Ø Longer passwords provide greater security p. 566 - 567 Fig. 11-11 Next Unauthorized Access and Use
What is a possessed object?
Ø Ø Item that you must carry to gain access to computer or facility Often used with numeric password called personal identification number (PIN) p. 567 Next Unauthorized Access and Use
What is a biometric device?
Ø Authenticates person’s identity using personal characteristic
§ Fingerprint, hand geometry, voice, signature, and iris p. 567 - 568 Fig. 11-13 Next Hardware Theft and Vandalism
What are hardware theft and hardware vandalism?
Ø Hardware theft is act of stealing computer equipment
§ § § Cables sometimes used to lock equipment Some notebook computers use passwords, possessed objects, and biometrics as security methods You can password protect mobile devices Ø Hardware vandalism is act of defacing or destroying computer equipment Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click RTLS below Chapter 11 p. 569 - 570 Fig. 11-14 Next Software Theft
What is software theft?
Act of stealing or illegally stealing software, copying software or intentionally erasing programs Software piracy is illegal duplication of copyrighted software p. 570 Next Software Theft
What is a license agreement?
Ø Ø Right to use software Single-user license agreement allows user to install software on one computer, make backup copy, and sell software after removing from computer p. 570 - 571 Fig. 11-15 Next Software Theft
What are some other safeguards against software theft?
Product activation allows user to input product identification number online or by telephone and receive unique installation identification number Business Software Alliance (BSA) promotes better understanding of software piracy problems Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Business Software Alliance below Chapter 11 p. 571 Next Information Theft
What is encryption?
Ø Ø Ø Ø Safeguards against information theft Process of converting plaintext (readable data) into ciphertext (unreadable characters) Encryption key (formula) often uses more than one method To read the data, the recipient must decrypt, or decipher, the data p. 572 Fig. 11-16 Next Information Theft
How can I encrypt the contents of files and folders in Windows Vista? Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click BitLocker below Chapter 11p. 573 Fig. 11-17 Next Information Theft
How do Web browsers provide secure data transmission? Many Web browsers use encryption Secure site is Web site that uses encryption to secure data Digital certificate is notice that guarantees Web site is legitimate Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Digital Certificates below Chapter 11 p. 573 Next Information Theft
What is a certificate authority (CA)?
Ø Ø Authorized person or company that issues and verifies digital certificates Users apply for digital certificate from CA p. 573 Fig. 11-18 Next Information Theft
What is Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)?
Ø Provides encryption of all data that passes between client and Internet server
§ Web addresses beginning with “https” indicate secure connections p. 574 Fig. 11-19 Next System Failure
What is a system failure?
Prolonged malfunction of computer Can cause loss of hardware, software, or data Noise— unwanted electrical signal Caused by aging hardware, natural disasters, or electrical power disturbances
Undervoltage— drop in electrical supply Overvoltage or power surge— significant increase in electrical power
Next p. 574 System Failure
What is a surge protector?
Ø Ø Protects computer and equipment from electrical power disturbances Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is surge protector that provides power during power loss Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Uninterruptible Power Supply below Chapter 11 p. 574 - 575 Figs. 11-20–1121 Next Backing Up — The Ultimate Safeguard
What is a backup?
Duplicate of file, program, or disk
Full backup all files in computer Selective backup select which files to back up Three-generation backup preserves three copies of important files In case of system failure or corrupted files, restore files by copying to original location p. 576 Next Wireless Security
How can I ensure my wireless communication is secure?
Ø Secure your wireless access point (WAP) Ø WAP should not broadcast your network name Ø Enable Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) Ø 802.11i p. 577 Fig. 11-22 Next Ethics and Society
What are computer ethics?
Moral guidelines that govern use of computers and information systems
Unauthorized use of computers and networks Software theft Information accuracy Intellectual property rights—rights to which creators are entitled for their work Codes of conduct Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Digital Rights Management below p. 578 - 579 Chapter 11 Information privacy Next Ethics and Society
What is an IT code of conduct?
Ø Written guideline that helps determine whether computer action is ethical Employers can distribute to employees Ø p. 580 Fig. 11-25 Next Information Privacy
What is information privacy? Right of individuals and companies to deny or restrict collection and today because data is stored online Difficult to maintainuse of information about them Employee monitoring is using computers to observe employee computer use
Legal for employers to use monitoring software programs p. 580 and 586 Next Information Privacy
What are some ways to safeguard personal information?
Fill in only necessary information on rebate, warranty, and registration forms Avoid shopping club and buyers cards Install a cookie manager to filter cookies Clear your history file when you are finished browsing Set up a free e-mail account; use this e-mail address for merchant forms Turn off file and print sharing on your Internet connection Limit the amount of information you provide to Web sites; fill in only required information Sign up for e-mail filtering through your Internet access provider or use an antispam program, such as Brightmail Do not reply to spam for any reason Inform merchants that you do not want them to distribute your personal information Install a personal firewall Surf the Web anonymously with a program such as Freedom Web Secure or through an anonymous Web site such as Anonymizer.com p. 581 Next Information Privacy
What is an electronic profile?
Ø Ø Ø Data collected when you fill out form on Web Merchants sell your electronic profile Often you can specify whether you want personal information distributed p. 581 - 582 Fig. 11-27 Next Information Privacy
What is a cookie?
User preferenc es Small text file on your computer that contains data about you
Interests and browsing habits Some Web sites sell or trade information stored in your cookies How regularly you visit Web sites Set browser to accept cookies, prompt you to accept cookies, or disable cookies p. 582 Next Information Privacy
How do cookies work? p. 583 Fig. 11-28 Next Information Privacy
What are spyware, adware, and spam?
Ø Ø Spyware is program placed on computer without user’s knowledge Adware is a program that displays online advertisements Spam is unsolicited e-mail message sent to many recipients Ø Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Spam below Chapter 11 p. 583 - 584 Fig. 11-29 Next Information Privacy
How can you control spam?
Service that blocks e-mail messages from designated sources Collects spam in central location that you can view any time Anti-spam program
Attempts to remove spam Sometimes removes valid e-mail messages p. 584 Next Information Privacy
What is phishing?
Scam in which a perpetrator sends an official looking e-mail that attempts to obtain your personal and financial information p. 584 Next Information Privacy
What privacy laws have been enacted? p. 585 Fig. 11-30 Next Information Privacy
What privacy laws have been enacted? (cont’d) p. 585 Fig. 11-30 Next Information Privacy
What is content filtering?
Ø Ø Ø Process of restricting access to certain material Internet Content Rating Association (ICRA) provides rating system of Web content Web filtering software restricts access to specified sites p. 586 - 587 Fig. 11-31 Next Information Privacy
What is computer forensics?
Ø Ø Ø Also called digital forensics, network forensics, or cyberforensics Discovery, collection, and analysis of evidence found on computers and networks Computer forensic analysts must have knowledge of the law, technical experience, communication skills, and willingness to learn p. 587 Next Health Concerns of Computer Use
What are some health concerns of computer use?
Computer vision syndrome (CVS)—eye and vision problems Repetitive strain injury (RSI)
Tendonitis—inflammation of tendon due to repeated motion Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) —inflammation of nerve that connects forearm to palm Computer addiction—when computer consumes entire social life p. 587 - 589 Next Health Concerns of Computer Use
What precautions can prevent tendonitis or carpal tunnel syndrome?
Ø Ø Ø Spread fingers apart for several seconds while keeping wrists straight Gently push back fingers and then thumb Dangle arms loosely at sides and then shake arms and hands p. 588 Fig. 11-32 Next Health Concerns of Computer Use
How can you ease eyestrain when working at the p. 588 Fig. 11-33 Next Health Concerns of Computer Use
What is ergonomics?
Ø Applied science devoted to comfort, efficiency, and safety in workplace
keyboard height: 23” to 28” elbows at 90° and arms and hands parallel to floor adjustable seat adjustable height chair with 4 or 5 legs for stability p. 589 Fig. 11-34 feet flat on floor
Next Health Concerns of Computer Use
What is green computing?
Ø Reducing electricity and environmental waste while using computer Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Green Computing below Chapter 11 11-35 p. 590 Fig. Next Summary of Computer Security, Ethics and Privacy Potential computer risks Ethical issues surrounding information accuracy, intellectual property rights, codes of conduct, and information privacy Safeguards that schools, business, and individuals can implement to minimize these risks Computer-related health issues, their preventions, and ways to keep the environment healthy Wireless security risks and safeguards Chapter 11 Complete ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/29/2009 for the course CSC CSC106 taught by Professor Cordle during the Spring '09 term at Sullivan.
- Spring '09