1-23-07 ActionHO

1-23-07 ActionHO - Cognition Action...

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Unformatted text preview: Cognition: Action http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~ackroff January 23, 2007 © John M. Ackroff 2007 Action Voluntary Movements Motor Unit Reflexes Reflex Arc Involuntary movement: may be a single ballistic movement (eye blink) or a motor sequence if a central pattern generator in the spinal cord is activated (infant swim reflex) Unconditioned innate fast response to unconditioned stimulus Conditioned innate fast response to (novel) stimulus routinely preceding unconditioned Stimulus (Rescorla-Wagner model) Reflexes Avoid eye blink Maintain vestibular- ocular pupil dilation muscle contraction spindles, tendons, joints, skin Approach ear pricking salivate None goose bumps Functions of Unconditioned Reflexes Voluntary Movements Require Perception of target Awareness of location of movable body part Ability to aim movement of body part Ability to detect errors and re-adjust, (use feedback) Ability to use feedback to control movement of body part Overview of Motor System Planning Parietal cortex Premotor and supplementary motor cortex Execution Motor cortex and basal ganglia aim and initiate body movement Cerebellum and nervous system program muscle movements Action Construction: Povel & Collard (1982) 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 E l e m e n t p o s i t io n i n s e q u e n c e 1 2 3 4 5 6 I m r r m I Finger m ove m ent Latency (mean rank im rrm i m rrm i Cortical Motor System Motor & Somatosensory Maps Planning Motor learning occurs because the final posture of a successful movement is stored in memory. When the target again appears in the same location the posture is retrieved and becomes the plan that is programmed and executed. The retrieval of stored postures reduces the amount of computation necessary for fast, accurate action. Planning An Action Parietal cortex Neurons respond to both visual and tactual inputs Input used in activating and selecting among plans Premotor and supplementary motor cortex Activation and selection of plans Mirror neurons respond when the same action is performed or observed Planning a grasp Figure 2.5. Four steps in planning a grasping action. Representations of grasping hand postures are retrieved from memory (top panel). The hand posture providing the closest fit to the target is selected (second panel). Representations of arm extensions are retrieved from memory (third panel). The arm memory (third panel)....
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2008 for the course PSYCH 340 taught by Professor Ackroff during the Spring '07 term at Rutgers.

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1-23-07 ActionHO - Cognition Action...

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