Crim Exam Study Guide Exam 2 Long

Crim Exam Study Guide Exam 2 Long - 1. What is a theory?...

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1. What is a theory? -Theory Explains Phenomena -Simple understanding of complex events Formal Definition: A theory is a set of interrelated propositions that allow for the systemization of knowledge, explanation and prediction of social life and the generation of new research What are the main goals of theory? COPE Control Organizes Predicts Explain 2. What are the criteria of a "good" theory? -Fits the Facts Crime is committed disproportionately by: Males/ Ages 15 – 25, Unmarried People/ Those living in large cities -Has logical consistency -Tautology = circular reasoning - Creates interesting Puzzles -Has policy implications -Has Empirical Support -Generalizable -Parsimony-- less is better. Testability -Broad in Scope 3. What were the earliest explanations of crime and deviance? -Spiritual Explanations Criminals “possessed” by Demons 4. How did the Classical School of thought originate? 1764 – On Crimes and Punishments All human behavior = free will Punishment can deter Crime1. Who are the "key thinkers" associated with the Classical School? Thomas Hobbes – Leviathan Ceasare Beccari – On Crimes and Punishments Jeremy Bentham – An Introduction to the Principle of Morals and Legislation Hedonistic Calculus (Pain v. Pleasure)
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All Human Behavior = Free Will People are rational Prevent crimes through punishment Swift/ Severe/ Certain 2. What are the main assumptions of the Classical School? Society is good. People are bad All people motivated to commit crime People are rational beings Free Will 5. What is the modern/contemporary theoretical version of the Classical School? Deterrence Theory 1. What is deterrence? Can prevent crime through punishment/ Pleasure vs. Pain 2. What are the main elements of deterrence? Proportional severity Celerity- swiftness Certainty 3. How does deterrence operate? Specific (or “special”) deterrence- focuses on the individual deviant and attempts to correct his or her behavior. Punishment is meant to discourage the individual from recidivating (meaning going back to doing the crime)- wiki General Deterrence- "manifests itself in policy whereby examples are made of deviants. The individual actor is not the focus of the attempt at behavioral change, but rather receives punishment in public view in order to deter other individuals from deviance in the future."- wiki 4. What are the two ways we can research deterrence? Objective Deterrence- actual threat of punishment certainty associated with committing a crime and its severity will affect some objective measure of crime, say homicide rate. Perceptual Deterrence- "Most likely to depend on what the certainty and severity of punishment were thought to be rather than on their objective or actual levels. 5. What is the difference between absolute and restrictive deterrence?
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This note was uploaded on 11/30/2009 for the course BIOE 120 taught by Professor Aranda-espinoza during the Spring '08 term at Maryland.

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Crim Exam Study Guide Exam 2 Long - 1. What is a theory?...

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