BIOE 120 CHAPTER OUTLINES
There are places with higher potential and places with lower
Things move from higher to lower potential.
is a word used to describe the tendency of something to move, so
potential, which can be either positive or negative, can either
attract or repel moveable things.
These things can be particles,
energy, or biological units themselves, as explained in Section 2.1.
The maintenance of order requires energy.
Living things are
highly ordered instead of random.
As a consequence, living things
require constant expenditure of energy.
See Section 2.6.
What goes in but doesn’t come out is stored inside.
covers the idea of balance, and the conservation of matter or
energy, and is covered in Section 2.2.
Different forms of energy can be used to perform mechanical work.
Mechanical work is extremely important for biological units, and
this work is used to define the meaning of energy.
2.4 and 2.8.
The transfer of something from one place to another depends
directly on the surface area and is inversely proportional to the
distance between the two places.
No matter whether the
“something” is heat, mass, electrical current, or something else,
biological units must deal with the constraints imposed by
See Sections 2.4, 2.8, and 2.11.
Mechanical strength depends on geometrical configuration, the
amount of material present, and properties of the material.
Various biological units maintain their physical integrities by balancing these three
considerations, some by their shapes, others
by deposits of strong materials, and others by using materials with
See Sections 2.9 and 2.10.
Unbalanced mechanical forces cause acceleration.
If there are no
net forces, then a body in motion continues to remain in motion
and a body at rest stays at rest.
See Section 2.10.
Heat is the ultimate nonspecific form of energy.
Low grade waste
heat is useless to perform any kind of work.
See Sections 2.4 and
Hydrostatic pressures are equal in all directions.
Strong walls are
unnecessary if hydrostatic pressures are equal on both sides.
Pressure can distort objects or may support them.
See Section 2.9.
Flowing fluids require energy to overcome resistance.
movement is important in biological systems to supply oxygen,
nutrients, and control chemicals, and to remove wastes.
capacity of the heart to move these fluids depends mostly on the
ability to overcome resistance, and the configuration of the flow
path achieves a balance between high and low resistances. See Sections 2.4 and 2.9.