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BIOE120 chapter summeries

# BIOE120 chapter summeries - BIOE 120 CHAPTER OUTLINES...

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BIOE 120 CHAPTER OUTLINES Chapter 2: 1. There are places with higher potential and places with lower potential. Things move from higher to lower potential. “Potential” is a word used to describe the tendency of something to move, so potential, which can be either positive or negative, can either attract or repel moveable things. These things can be particles, energy, or biological units themselves, as explained in Section 2.1. 2. The maintenance of order requires energy. Living things are highly ordered instead of random. As a consequence, living things require constant expenditure of energy. See Section 2.6. 3. What goes in but doesn’t come out is stored inside. This principle covers the idea of balance, and the conservation of matter or energy, and is covered in Section 2.2. 4. Different forms of energy can be used to perform mechanical work. Mechanical work is extremely important for biological units, and this work is used to define the meaning of energy. See Sections 2.4 and 2.8. 5. The transfer of something from one place to another depends directly on the surface area and is inversely proportional to the distance between the two places. No matter whether the “something” is heat, mass, electrical current, or something else, biological units must deal with the constraints imposed by geometry. See Sections 2.4, 2.8, and 2.11. 6. Mechanical strength depends on geometrical configuration, the amount of material present, and properties of the material. Various biological units maintain their physical integrities by balancing these three considerations, some by their shapes, others by deposits of strong materials, and others by using materials with unusual properties. See Sections 2.9 and 2.10. 7. Unbalanced mechanical forces cause acceleration. If there are no net forces, then a body in motion continues to remain in motion and a body at rest stays at rest. See Section 2.10. 8. Heat is the ultimate nonspecific form of energy. Low grade waste heat is useless to perform any kind of work. See Sections 2.4 and 2.12. 9. Hydrostatic pressures are equal in all directions. Strong walls are unnecessary if hydrostatic pressures are equal on both sides. Pressure can distort objects or may support them. See Section 2.9. 10. Flowing fluids require energy to overcome resistance. Fluid movement is important in biological systems to supply oxygen, nutrients, and control chemicals, and to remove wastes. The capacity of the heart to move these fluids depends mostly on the ability to overcome resistance, and the configuration of the flow path achieves a balance between high and low resistances. See Sections 2.4 and 2.9.

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Effort variables are those things that cause an action to occur. Flow variables are the responses to effort variables, usually involving movement but not always Resistance is the ratio of effort to flow variable amounts. Mathematically, resistance is given as:
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BIOE120 chapter summeries - BIOE 120 CHAPTER OUTLINES...

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