4-Health disparities

4-Health disparities - HEALTH DISPARITIES Health Inequity...

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Unformatted text preview: HEALTH DISPARITIES Health Inequity Health Health disparities or health inequalities Health health Health disparities is a gap in the health and Health health care across ethnic, racial and socioeconomic groups in national and international level. Or international Specific population differences in the presence Specific of diseases, health outcomes and access to health care health Causes of health disparities Causes disparities can result from following factors: Socioeconomics Demographic Envirenmental Access to health care Access Qulity of health care Socioeconomics Socioeconomics factors Income Education Employment status Occupation Social class Race and ethnic group Marital status poverty Demographic Demographic Sex, Gender roles Age Population Marital status Household size housing family structure Envirenmental Envirenmental polluted water, polluted poor sanitation, poor inadequate housing Personal hygiene pollution CULTURAL FACTORS CULTURAL family structure beliefs behaviors perceptions language religion rituals RESULTS OF HEALTH INEQUITIES INEQUITIES Mortality and morbidity Life expectancy Objective: US sample used to estimate the Objective: effect of race, employment, income, education, occupation, marital status and household size in mortality in CONCLUTION: All above factors have CONCLUTION: substantial net association with mortality substantial Mortality and morbidity Mortality US Mortality Sorlie; Backlund; keller Sorlie; 1979-1989 1979-1989 ECONOMIC,DEMOGRAFIC, ECONOMIC,DEMOGRAFIC, RACIAL CARACTERISTIC Economic status characterized by: Economic Income Education Occupation Employment status Employment Age, Age, Sex biological, biological, cultural, cultural, socioeconomic socioeconomic Demographic variables status characterized by: Demographic Racial status characterized by: Racial RESULTS RESULTS Blacks less than 65 years had significantly Blacks higher mortality than whites higher 25-44 showed more than twice the rate than 25-44 whites whites 65+ rate of blacks similar to whites or slightly 65+ lower than whites lower RESULTS RESULTS EMPLOYMENT STATUS Unable to work, Mortality rate ranged from 3.0811.25higher than employed Female house worker had lower risk than retired Men house workers had higher rate than retired Unemployed less than 65 had higher rate than Unemployed working men working 25-44 years retiered women smaller risk than men Men 24-44 and 45-64 with house hold income Men of $50,000 or more had 30% lower mortality rate than with household income less than $5000 $5000 Higher education associate with lower Higher mortality in men and women RESULTS RESULTS INCOME AND EDUCATION INCOME STATUS STATUS The widowed, divorced, separate, and never married The all evolved higher mortality rates than married all Women and men65 and less with two or more Women member of household had a lower mortality rate than who lived alone who Women 65+ who lived alone had lower mortality rate Women The risks for all above categories change 4% or less The when occupation category added as co-variables when RESULTS RESULTS MARITAL AND HOUSEHOLD MARITAL SIZE SIZE RESULTS RESULTS Overall, within each race group segments of Overall, American society had substantially higher risk of death than others of These segments identify poor, less educated, These service oriented occupation service The magnitude of the relative risk for these The factors was considerable such as Smoking ...
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