Unformatted text preview: Gender and Reproduction Reproduction SOCIAL CATEGORIES OF POPULATION POPULATION There are two social categories for population in all societies based on series of assumptions drawn from their culture Male female Gender Gender The nature versus nurture controversy human behavior and mind as well as perceived differences between human groups were all due to nature or nurture Today Anthropologist reject both extreme biological and environmental determinism Biological and environment play some part in the definition of any individuals gender Components of Gender Components Genetic gender: based on genotype and sex chromosomes XX =F and XY=M Somatic gender: Based physical appearances and secondary sex characteristic (breast, voice, external genitalia) Psychological gender: Based on self perception Social gender: Based on how individual perceived by society Gender Cultures Gender Culture contributes a set of guidelines that tell an individual how to perceive, think, feel and act as either a male or female in that society In New Guinea men and women are polarized, they live in separate houses in different parts of the village Variation in gender cultures Variation Some anthropologists suggested subordination of women is a universal phenomena especially their demotion to domestic rather than public area of life In some traditional societies women especially older women with children exercise great personal, symbolic and economic power As Keesing points out women’s power exercise behind the scenes is more effective than men’s There are many variations crossculturally in the norms of sexual behavior for each of the sexes Variation between societies in the degree of heterosexual activity before, outside or even within marriage Gender Cultures and Sexual Behavior Sexual Extramarital sex: men 69% vs. women 57%; Extramarital 54% societies allow it for men and 11% for woman. Practices to ‘preserve’ virginity Practices
Practices to ‘preserve’ virginity Heterosexuality and homosexuality Gender Cultures and Sexual Behavior Sexual In some societies homosexuality for both men and women is completely forbidden New Guinea heterosexuality prohibited for 260 days Mombasa Kenya homosexuality common and tacitly tolerated Gender Cultures and Sexual Behavior Sexual Where desire for fertility is high sexuality and fertility are hardly separated; In defining gender biological sex is more important than behavioral sex Where desire for children is less (western world) gender defined less by biological criteria and more by social and sexual behavior Gender Cultures and Health Care Care Most primary health care takes place within family Popular sector: Mostly women often mothers and grandmothers (self help groups, spiritual healers, etc..) Professional sector: Nurses and midwives physicians vs. nurses ( UK 1901, 212 F. Doc, vs. 36000 M. Doc) THE NUSING PROFFESION THE College of nursing funded in 1916 Register of nurses established in 1918 Nurses’ Act established a roll of nurses in 1943 In 1990 the population per nurse: Tanzania 5470 Pakistan 5040 Malaysia 380 Austria 70 Medicalization Medicalization The way in which the jurisdiction of modern medicine has expanded in recent years and now encompasses many problems that were formerly not defined as medical entities Modern medicine is increasingly used as an agent of social control especially over women’s life making them dependent on the medical profession Controlling socially abnormal behavior (ill or mad vs. evil and bad) Medicalization Medicalization Cases some sociologist and anthropologist have cited as example of medicalization will focus: Stress of women and psychotropic drug prescription Aspect of the female physiology and life cycle, such as menstruation, menopause, childbirth Women and Psychotropic Drug Prescribing Psychotropic Psychotropic drugs prescribed to women twice as much as men Advertisements for psychotropic drugs as solution for women’s life stress Menstruation Menstruation Women in industrialized countries have different experiences of menstruation to the women in many developing countries, menstrual period are relatively uncommon for number of reasons in developing countries Inadequate nutrition Prolonged breastfeeding Number of pregnancies Menopause Menopause Feature of modern, industrialized societies Seen as a disease Biological definition of menopause as primarily an endocrine disorder (estrogen deficiency) Gender Cultures and Health Gender Gender roles prescribed by gender culture can be ether protective of health or pathogenic Diseases of female social gender Diseases of male social gender (aspects of male gender culture contribute to men’s ill health) Post operation infection (plastic surgery) Exotic changes in the body surface footbinding, lip piercing, are clear risks to health alcohol smoking risk taking Warfare Gender Cultures and Health Gender Males required to have high threshold for pain Encourage Type A personalities Delays in seeking medical treatment competitive, ambitious, time obsessed Risk factors for CHD Gender Cultures and Health Gender Diseases of female social gender plastic surgery (risks of surgery, anesthesia and postop infection) food and diet fads low threshold for seeking medical attention (overprescribing) Reproduction and Childbirth Reproduction Birth Culture: informs members of a society about the nature of conception, the proper conditions of procreation and childbearing, the workings of pregnancy and labor, and the rules and rationales of pre and postnatal behavior Western Birth Culture Western Shift from midwives to obstetricians, before 1880 aids were female relative or birth attendant, by 1930 child birth took place more often in hospital In US and UK, almost all births today take place in hospitals The medicalization of birth Separation of mother and infant (metaphor of the body as a machine) Technology is key in western birth culture Non-Western Birth Cultures Non-Western Most babies deliver by female traditional birth attendants (TBAs) In 1978 and 1992,WHO reports supported further training of TBAs Birth positions (standing or squatting) Umbilical cord often cut after removal of placenta 2040 day postnatal rest period Fertility and Infertility Fertility Fertility is a universal human concern In US, ability to conceive and carry child basic to womanhood; infertile women reported feeling ‘abnormal’ In other societies, infertile women seen as unfulfilled or incomplete Traditional societies often blame the woman for being infertile New Reproductive Technologies Technologies Most well known: in vitro fertilization surrogate motherhood Contraception, Infanticide and Abortion Abortion Contraception Infanticide Different attitudes to contraception seem to vary widely between cultures often when space and resources are limited often dependent on sex of child often dependent on population policy fetus as a ‘person’ woman’s control over her body Abortion Males and pregnancy Males Most men are physically and socially deeply involved in the birth of their child Majority of human cultures exclude men from the scene of birth Among the Arapesh people of New Guinea childbearing is believed to be as heavy a drain on the man as on the woman FAMILY AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH HEALTH Allan Rosenfield, Elizabeth Tyler Crone Chapter 22 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POPPULATIONAND DEVELOPMENT POPPULATIONAND ICPD 1994 Programs for 21th century Comprehensive sexual and reproductive health care for women and men on reproductive age ICPD 1994 Programs ICPD Comprehensive health program Provision of contraception services Provision screening and treatment of STDs Provision of maternity care and reduce maternal mortality Provision of safe abortion Provision of care to adolescents Involvement of men to enpowerment women Major challenge for 21th century Major Implement the goals set in1994 For success to reach in achievements of these goals : Strong political commitment Ensuring global partnerships Intergovernmental cooperation Crosscultural alliances' CONCLUSION CONCLUSION As 1998 56% women used a modern method of contraception, It is estimated morethan 150 million couple in developing countries have significant needs for contraception STD is most common causes of illness around the world (33.4 million living with HIV,13.9 million died from AIDS, 600,000 Children infected with HIV each year CONCLUSION CONCLUSION Adolescent pregnancy recognized as an urgent reproductive health problem we need to ensure the health of world adolescents 585000 women die each year of pregnancy related complications In 1995 the Abortion rate 35 per 100 women aged 1544, 26% of all pregnancies were terminated CONCLUSION CONCLUSION For the implementation of reproductive health initiatives, we should Develop and distribute tools to implement this agenda Issues of prioritizations, financing and implementation must be reviewed and resoled Concerted efforts should be made to redress the imbalance maternal and child health programs ...
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- Sexual intercourse, Fertility, Medicalization Medicalization