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Unformatted text preview: CANCER CANCER Cause, Diagnosis and Treatment Memmler’s Human Body in Health and Diseases B.J Cohen, D.L Wood P. 5154 Fall 2009 WHAT IS CANCER WHAT IS CANCER Any abnormal growth of cells is called a tumor or neoplasm Benign (beNINe)= Tumor is confined to a local area and does not spread Malignant= Tumor spreads to neighboring tissues or to distant parts of the body The general term for any type of malignant tumor is CANCER CHARACTERISTIC OF BENIGN CHARACTERISTIC OF BENIGN TUMORS Benign tumors Are not dangerous in themselves They do not spread (Purely expansive with capsules) Their cells stick together Often they are encapsulated They grow as a single mass within a tissue Some benign tumors can be harmful (Brain) No Metastasis Benign Tumors Benign Tumors
Some example of benign tumors Papilloma: tumor grows in epithelium ( a thin layer of tightly packed cells lining internal cavities eg, Wart) Adenoma: grows in or about the glands Lipoma connective tissue tumor originating in fatty tissue Osteoma: connective tissue tumor originates in bone Benign Tumors Benign Tumors Myoma: A tumor of muscle tissue Angioma: A tumor usually is composed of small blood or lymphatic vessels (birthmark) Nevus (NEvus): Small skin tumor (moles) Chondroma: A tumor of cartilage cells Malignant tumor can cause death no CHARACTERISTIC CHARACTERISTIC OF Malignant Tumors matter where they occur Cancer sends out extensions into neighboring tissue (like crab) Cancer spread seeds (cancer cells) by blood or lymph, which plant themselves in other parts of the body Cancer seeds grow (metastasize) when they reach their destination CHACHARACTERISTIC OF CHACHARACTERISTIC OF Malignant Tumors Malignant Tumors Grow much more rapidly than benign tumors Are not capsulated Poorly differentiated Abnormal growth MALIGNANT TUMORS MALIGNANT TUMORS CLASSIFICATION Malignant tumors have two main categories: Carcinoma: Most common form of cancer originates in the outer layer of cells surrounding any organ Sarcoma: Cancers of connective tissues of all kinds and may be found anywhere in the body. Cells usually spread by the blood OTHER KIND OF MALIGNANT OTHER KIND OF MALIGNANT TUMOR Neuroma: Cancer of nervous system, Glioma: a malignant neoplasm of lymphatic tissue Lymphoma: Cancer of white blood cells SYMPTOMS OF CANCER SYMPTOMS OF CANCER Symptoms of cancer should be reported to care taker soon. Bleeding or discharge Persistent indigestion Chronic hoarseness A sore that does not heal in a reasonable time The presence of white patches inside the mouth or white spot on the tongue Diagnosis of cancer Diagnosis of cancer Improved cancer detection methods: Biopsy: microscopic examination of cells from living tissue Ultrasound: is the use of reflected high frequency sound waves to differentiate various kinds of tissue Computed tomography (CT) : Use of Xrays to produce a crosssectional picture of body parts Magnetic resonance imaging( MRI): Uses of magnetic fields and radio wave to show changes in soft tissues. Stages of Tumor Stages of Tumor Stage of tumor correlates with prognosis and directs therapy. Stage refers to the extent of tumor at the time of presentation, the higher the stage the poorer the prognosis. Components of stage include: size, presence and number of lymph nodes involved, presence of metastasis. BIOPSY BIOPSY Biopsy is the process of sampling tissue for examination Aspiration biopsy: Tissue sample removed surgically or by needle looking for abnormal cells (dysplasia) Prevention and Screening Prevention and Screening Risk Factor Modification. Pap Smear for treatment of precancerous changes 15% of all new cancers are related to smoking, so reduction in smoking would be important. Changes in diet can reduce rates of cancer Access to screening can drastically reduce rates of mortality from cervical and oval cancers. Colonoscopy for removal of precancerous adenomas Annual Physical – looking for skin changes Mammography/Self Exam screening Testicular Exam screening Treatment of Cancer Treatment of Cancer Standard forms of treatment: Surgery Radiation
– Can be directly removed by or by laser – Administrated by Xray machines to a specific location or – Radioactive material is placed into cancer – Drugs that specifically kill the cancer cell are used Chemotherapy In many cases combination therapy is used Cancer Treatment Side Effects Cancer Treatment Side Effects Surgical removal of more than diseased tissue (e.g. brain surgery) Radiation can affect tissue in the path of radiation (e.g. can cause blood cancers) Chemotherapy kills normal cells that divide as well such as bone marrow making the person susceptible to infection with lower white blood cell counts. What Causes Cancer What Causes Cancer Different risk factors cause cancer Physiological risk factors External risk factors Sociocultural risk factors What Causes Cancer What Causes Cancer Sociocultural risk factors Smoking Nutrition Physical inactivity Overweight/obesity Sun exposure HPV infection (Human Papilloma Virus) Other life style factors What Causes Cancer What Causes Cancer Physiological factors Genetic mutations – predispose you to cancer Immune conditions – immunodeficiency What Causes Cancer What Causes Cancer External factors Tobacco Radiation Chemicals Infectious organisms (HIV, HPV) Estimates of Worldwide Mortality Estimates of Worldwide Mortality from 25 Cancers in 1990 P. Pisani, DM. Parkin, F. Bray, J. Ferlay
International Agency For Rsearch on Cancer Lyon, France Estimates of Worldwide Mortality Estimates of Worldwide Mortality Estimates of Worldwide Mortality from 25 Cancers in 1990 Based on death registration data Where mortality data are unavailable, data collected by cancer registries or population survey Most common sites of cancer death Most common sites of cancer death
1. Lung 900,000/year 2. Gastric 600,000/year 3. Colorectal / Liver 400,000/year 4. Breast cancer 300,000/year (leading cause of cancer death among women) 5. Esophageal 286,000/year 6. Cervical cancer 190,000/year Geographical distribution Geographical distribution The regions with highest cancer risk for women : 1. North America 2. Southern Africa 3. Tropical South Africa COLORECTAL CANCER COLORECTAL CANCER Colorectal cancer is the 3rd most important cause of cancer mortality (437,000) Similar number of death in two sexes Liver and Breast and Esophageal Liver and Breast and Esophageal Cancer Liver cancer is the 4th most common cause of death (427,000 53% in China) Breast cancer is the most frequent and leading cause in women Esophageal cancer 6th most cause of death worldwide (286,000 80% in developing countries) Cervical and Ovarian Cancer Cervical and Ovarian Cancer
Leading cancer in women in developing countries, 78% occurs in developing countries, (190,000) High mortality rate in SubSaharan Africa, Tropical south America, central America and Caribbean The ovarian cancer is 101,000 ( 44,000 in developing countries Lymphoma, Leukemia and Lymphoma, Leukemia and Pancreatic 197,000 death a year from lymphoma, 50% or higher in developing countries 184,000 death a year from leukemia 59% occur in developing countries 168,000 death from Pancreatic cancer. 9th most common killer in both sexes Prostate bladder and Kidney Prostate bladder and Kidney cancer Number of death In women 58,000 almost equally distribute between Kidney and bladder Number of death In men 167,000 Prostate cancer 86,000 bladder cancer 49000 Kidney cancer Brain and Nervous System Brain and Nervous System 95,000 annual death. High rate in Europe and Australia and north America Low rate in developing countries ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/30/2009 for the course HP 400m at USC.