Ch2_Scientific Research

Ch2_Scientific Research - Chapter 2 Scientific Research...

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Chapter 2 Scientific Research
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Science is a method of  gaining knowledge.
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What is the Scientific Method?
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Drawing Conclusions Defining a Problem Forming a Hypothesis Collecting Data
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The Scientific Method 1. Identify  a question. 2. Propose   an answer (research hypothesis). 3. Identify variables , propose how they are expected  to be related. 4. Plan a  research design  to test the hypothesis.
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The Scientific Method (cont. .) 1. Collect  empirical data. 1. Analyze   data. 1. Based on analyzed data,  confirm or  denounce  hypothesis.
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Empirical Data Empirical Data  are scores that can be measured  based on observation or sensory experiences .
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Research Methods
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1. Naturalistic Research Observation of behavior taking place in  natural settings. Natural setting  - Setting that was natural and  was not interfered by research. Natural behavior  - behavior established or  maintained in natural environment.
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Natural treatment  - naturally occurring  incidents (e.g. earthquake, heat wave,  surgery).  For example, the relationship  between air temperature and riots. Naturalistic Observation  – Research  that looks at behavior in its usual natural  setting.
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1. Archival Records Research using existing  records. Example:  data from National  Center for Health Statistics  on homicide.
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1. Survey Research Data from oral or written interviews.  Collect data  from a representative sample of interest.  (example:  ask people for reaction toward an event and tabulate  responses based on race, region, or occupation). In this type of survey data, explanations of why  people hold certain views is not attempted.
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Experiment A controlled situation in which one or more  independent variables are manipulated to  investigate the effect on the dependent  variable. Experiments allow scientists to explore 
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This note was uploaded on 11/30/2009 for the course HP 400m at USC.

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Ch2_Scientific Research - Chapter 2 Scientific Research...

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