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Chapter 10 Solutions

# Chapter 10 Solutions - Georgia Institute of Technology |...

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Georgia Institute of Technology | CHEM 1310 | Fall 2009 The nominal definition of a solution is a mixture of two components one of which is present in a greater quantity (the Properties of Solutions solvent ) and the other of which is present in smaller quantities (the solute ). Solutions may consist of solids (as with metal alloys – mixtures of methods), liquids, or gases. To define the relative amounts of solute to solvent there are four different calculations that we commonly use. For solids, the mass-to-mass percentage is the most common, mole fraction is the most common for gases, and molarity is the most common for liquids. solvent of kg solute of mole m Molality Volume) for Liters and M capital the of use the note (please solvent of L solute of mole M Molarity 1 moles. of number the is n where n n ) as d Represente (Often Fraction Mole 100% x solution of mass solute of mass (wt/wt%) Percentage Mass to Mass 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 = = = = = + = + = + = = χ n n n n n n n Molarity (M) is temperature-dependent; therefore, for calculations that depend upon changes in temperature, the molality (m) is computed to avoid any errors associated with the changes in volume because of temperature fluctuations. Volume is directly proportional to temperature (for most solutions). Vapor Pressure Vapor pressure is perhaps one of the most difficult concepts to grasp conceptually in chemistry because it represents a dynamic process. The typical definition for vapor pressure is the pressure exerted on the walls of a (closed) container filled with a pure compound of solution as a result of the vaporization (conversion from a liquid to a gas). At any given time, the liquid particles are breaking free from the intermolecular forces holding them in the liquid phase to become gas particles. However, this process is dynamic, and at the same time, gas particles are being recaptured by the liquid. This dynamic process is known as equilibrium.

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Georgia Institute of Technology | CHEM 1310 | Fall 2009 phase. liquid e within th place in them holding forces ular intermolec the from free break to particles allows ch energy whi kinetic in increase an yields ture in tempera increase an because rization favor vapo peratures Higher tem specific. re temperatu is process by this favored side The G) (L on Vaporizati L) (G on Condensati Water at 20 o C Water at 30 o C Water at 50 o C Water at 80 o C Water at 100 o C At 100 o C, the equilibrium is driven completely toward vaporization because at normal atmospheric pressure (at sea level), the boiling point of water is 100 o C. Therefore, all of the liquid particles are converted to gas particles. As long as the temperature remains at or above 100 o C, the particles will remain in the gas phase. The boiling point of water is 100
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Chapter 10 Solutions - Georgia Institute of Technology |...

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