Linguistics

Linguistics - Chapter 9 Settlement History The settlement...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 9: Settlement History The settlement history of the Middle and South Atlantic States is far more complicated than that of New England. The area stretches from the St. Lawrence Valley to the neighborhood of Daytona Beach, Florida, from the eastern tip of Long Island to the Ohio bor- der. It is four and a half times the size of New Eng- land, with nearly five times the population. New York or Pennsylvania alone has far more people than all of New England. There is a wide range of climatic conditions; thus an item like ‘a shelter for cattle’ can evoke a wide range of referents—from the large multipurpose barn in Upstate New York, to a few sheets of gal— vanized iron on a crude frame in parts of the coastal South. Parenthetically, for a long time Florida had the highest rate of cattle deaths from exposure of all the states, Minnesota the lowest. The history of settlement varies. In New Eng— land, most of the coastal communities were settled by 1675, and the whole region was pretty well staked out by the time of the Revolution. For the LAM- SAS area the first settlements (not counting the first Spanish outpost at St. Augustine in 1565) vary from Jamestown in 1607 to Savannah in 1733, a spread of over 126 years. Much of New York, Pennsylvania, and Georgia was not opened up till after 1800, and the Central Adirondacks not till the end of the nine— teenth century. There was far greater ethnic diversity among the settlers in the Middle and South Atlantic States than in New England. In New England even the ubiquiw tous Ulster Scots contributed a minimal leavening of the colonial Yankee stock; the Southern Irish did not reach New England till the 18305, and foreign language groups became important only in the twentieth century. But the earliest settlements in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware were made by Dutch, Swedes, and Finns. German and German-Swiss settlements were scattered from the Mohawk Valley to the Altamaha; the Ulster Scots covered the same expanse of territory, generally in greater density. There were Highlanders in North Carolina and Georgia, Huguenots in almost every colony, especially in the towns, Sephardic Jews, notably in New York, Philar delphia, and Charleston, and Africans in varying proportions, to say nothing of the Welsh in Penn—3 sylvania and South Carolina and the Barbadjans-_ who dominated colonial Charleston. Nor was the situation of any ethnic group the same in every colony. '_ Each colony had its own agricultural system and. special products. Maryland, Virginia, and the Albemarle Sound area had tobacco; South Cari}. lina, a little later, had rice and indigo. All colonies- exported furs, hides, and timber; the Carolinas and Georgia also exported naval stores. The extent of urbanization varied. Philadelphia, New York, and Charleston were comparable to British provincial cities by the beginning of th eighteenth century; Virginia had no city until Nor folk, which developed after 1750 in time to be. destroyed in the Revolution; Baltimore began to- develop about 1790. The population of the three: major cities was extremely diverse, and it is: debatable which one was the most diverse. For example, as late as 1820 there were more Jews in" Charleston than in New York. ' Finally, the systems of local government were larger than a village. Further south there were __ militia districts or legislative districts; in Delaware, 3 and occasionally in other colonies, they were called hundreds, an Old English term meaning an area. supplying a hundred armed men. To add to the:_ complication, in Somh Carolina, for a while, a dis- trict meant something larger than a county—often with counties as sub-divisions. In the South the parish was also a unit of civil as well as ecclesiastical 5. government. Townships were imposed on Virginia-_' and the Carolinas by the occupation governments of the 18605, but Virginia soon returned to the old sys- tem of districts. After 1868 the South Carolina LOW Country converted the older parishes into-I. townships, keeping the old names, but many of the inhabitants still refer to them as parishes. Virginia . Chapter 9: Settlement History Figure 9.1: Topography of the LAMSAS Region 155 LAMSAS Neuse River \ (intrastate Bar Albertans Sound ./ Cape Fear Miles 100 200 160 LAMSAS Handbook Chapter 9: Settlement History 161 Figure 9. 46:: Growth of Transportation Routes, 1675—1800 (Source: US Department of the Interior Geological Survey 1970:135) Figure 9.4!): Growth of Transportation Routes, 1850—1890 (Source: US Department of the Interior Geological Survey 1970:137) York City Pittsburgh ilmington St. Augustine Unsettled Area Unsettled Area 158 LAMSAS Handbook also has a system of independent cities, within counties and sometimes housing the county building, but not under county government. Recently some counties, or their rural parts, have converted them- selves into cities, so that the City of Chesapeake, once rural Norfolk County, issues licenses for hunt- ing deer and bear within the city limits. These dif- ferences in local government, and the frequent split— ting of counties and townships, make it very hard to get comparable figures from census to census, par- ticularly below the county level. Land Areas. The LAMSAS area includes five major geographic regions as represented in Figure 9.1. Moving inland from the coast, these may be defined as follows: 1) The Atlantic Coastal Plain, extending inland from the Continental Shelf stretch- ing from Long Island in the north down along the coast to Georgia and Florida; 2) the Piedmont area, which begins the ascent into the Appalachian Highlands, embracing the middle portions of Vir- ginia and North Carolina and most of the western half of South Carolina and the northern half of Georgia; 3) the Blue Ridge of North Carolina and Virginia; 4) the rolling ridge and valley formations of the Shenandoah Valley; and 5) the Appalachian Plateaus, extending south from the Adirondacks through western PennSylvania and eastern Ohio and _ Kentucky. Patterns of Settlement. The settlement of the Middle and South Atlantic States spans the period from the establishment of St. Augustine as a Spanish outpost in 1565 to the massive westward and northward migrations following the Civil War. The six parts of Figure 9.2 will give a general idea of the movement of settlers in the region in terms of popu— lation densities between 1790 and 1930. Three broad cultural belts are represented in the LAMSAS region: 1) the Northern, comprising New York City and the Hudson Valley and their over- spill into Western NY, the northern tier of Pennsyl- vania, and the Western Reserve of Northern Ohio; 2) the Midland, comprising Pennsylvania and its derivatives west (North Midland) and southwest (South Midland), with its core in the Philadelphia area in southeastern Pennsylvania, settled by 1750 by largely German, Scotch—Irish, and English; and 3) the South, with two principal hearth areas, one in the Chesapeake Bay area with its center at Williamsburg-Newport in eastern Virginia (where English settlers were firmly established by 1690), and extending southward to the northeastern corner of North Carolina and northward along the coast nearly to Baltimore; and the other in the Savannah- Charleston nexus of the South Carolina-Georgia . Low Country, a thriving English settlement area by _ . 1730. Figure 9.3 presents a general view of the cul- tural areas of the LAMSAS region with reference to _' the traditional areal terms of American dialect geography (compare Pederson et al. 1986—92, vol. 1, Figure 23, and Zelinsky 1973:118—19). Figure 9.4 illustrates the growth of transportation linkages to accommodate the general directions of '- settlement. Settlers from the New York City and Hudson Valley hearth area moved west into western NY, the northern tier of Pennsylvania, and finally into the Western Reserve of northern Ohio. Stem- ming from the Philadelphia cradle area, several cul- tural foci and two major patterns may be dis- tinguished. A North Midland pattern saw settle- _: ment along the Delaware Valley (originally mainly Quakers), the Susquehanna Valley (largely Ger- man) and the Upper Ohio River Valley (largely Ulster Scots), with some groups continuing south along the Ohio River. A second group, South Mid- landers, proceeded south along the Shenandoah Valley through southern West Virginia and south- western Virginia into the Carolina-Georgia Appalachian Highlands. Thus, a pattern of German and Scotch-Irish settlement, comprising mainly yeoman farmers, proceeded along these lines, in contrast to the largely English plantation culture which moved Upcountry from the Coastal Plain. In the South, settlers proceeded south from the Williamsburg-Newport area along the Piedmont into North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. Movements along this route apparently included not only English settlers, but Germans and Scotch-Irish - from the Baltimore area and even from as far north as Philadelphia. Finally, settlers from the Char- leston area generally proceeded inland into the Deep South, though a smaller stream moved up through the mountains toward Kentucky; Savannah settlers proceeded inland as well as south toward northeastern Florida. In general, after 1660 the English government was somewhat averse to emigration from England proper, though migration from Scotland and Ireland was encouraged. After 1689, there was a falling off in migration from Britain until 1768: the greatest English migration occurred in 1770—75. The years after 1728 saw increased Irish migration, with Ger- man migration being second to Irish in 1720-430. Early on, more than half the colonists south of New England were servants (many indentured); as Chapter 9: Settlement History Figure 9.3: Cultural Areas of the LAMSAS Region (Source: Zelinsky 1973:118-19; Pederson et al. 1986—921, Figure 23.) COLONIAL SOUTH PRIMARY BOUNDARY SECONDAR Y BOUNDARY CORE AREA 159 Handbook Linguistic Atlas Middle and South Atlantic States Edited by William A. Kretzschmar, Jr. Editor Virginia G. McDavid Associate Editor Theodore K. Lerud Assistant Editor Ellen Johnson Assistant Editor The University of Chicago Press Chicago and London ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/30/2009 for the course LING 101 taught by Professor Kirby during the Summer '08 term at UNC.

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Linguistics - Chapter 9 Settlement History The settlement...

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