CDV - Canine distemper virus CDV A paramyxovirus, related...

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Canine distemper virus
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CDV A paramyxovirus, related to measles virus Highly contagious, infects a variety of carnivores with varying severity of signs Wide use of effective vaccines has markedly decreased incidence in pet dogs Still common in raccoons, mink, skunks,badgers, wild/feral canines
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Clinical signs Characterized in early infection by ocular and nasal discharge, respiratory and GI signs Neurologic signs in later stages High mortality
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Clinical signs Initially,transient fever, mild anorexia, possible conjunctivitis 14-18 days later, recurrence of fever, depression, anorexia,mucopurulent ocular/nasal discharges, coughing, dyspnea, diarrhea, +/- vomiting Weight loss, dehydration, +/-convulsions, death Secondary bacterial bronchopneumonia common
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Neurologic signs Wide variation, related to level at which damage occurs Cerebral involvement—seizures, hypermotility, circling Midbrain, cerebellar, vestibular, medullary damage—gait and postural effects Spinal cord—ataxia, abnormal reflexes
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Neurologic signs Spinal cord—ataxia, abnormal reflexes “Typical” manifestation—”chewing gum fits” Blindness
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Chronic disease Dogs which survive the initial infection may develop neurologic signs years later “Hardpad disease”—hyperkeratosis of foot pads is a clue
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Differential diagnosis Progressive congenital neurologic disorders Hepatic encephalopathy—liver shunt Toxicities—thallium, lead Secondary bacterial infections may be thought to be primary problem Rabies Toxoplasmosis
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Laboratory diagnosis Difficult to confirm CDV—occasionally can see inclusion bodies in WBC or conjunctival epithelial cells with special stains Serology unreliable; most dogs have some level of antibodies Can rule out some other ddx with labwork— eg, NH4 levels and liver enzymes may eliminate hepatoencephalopathy, Pb levels, examination of blood smears rule out lead
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This note was uploaded on 11/30/2009 for the course VS 441 taught by Professor Newell during the Fall '03 term at Becker College.

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CDV - Canine distemper virus CDV A paramyxovirus, related...

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