Feline Retroviruses

Feline Retroviruses - Feline diseases VS 441 Feline...

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Feline diseases VS 441
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Feline leukemia virus First isolated in 1964 Leading infectious cause of mortality in cats Retrovirus of the subfamily Oncoviridae
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FeLV--subgroups A—least pathogenic, found in all naturally infected cats B—found in ~1/2 of infected cats. The combination of subgroups A &B increase the likelihood of the development of neoplasia C—tends to cause severe anemia
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FeLV—clinical signs Relatively non-specific—weight loss, anorexia, depression, neurologic disorders, uveitis, vomiting and diarrhea “Fading kitten syndrome”
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FeLV—infection Transmission through saliva, urine, milk. Virus is not stable for long in environment Requires close contact--fighting, sharing food dishes, litter pans, mutual grooming Young cats are more susceptible to infection Queens may pass the virus to kittens in utero or in milk
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FeLV--pathogenesis Cats which are exposed have several possible outcomes: 1)Transient infection, after which they successfully clear virus from their system 2)Development of latent infection—no clinical signs—clinical disease may surface if these animals are stressed 3)Persistent infection, usually death within 2-3 years
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FeLV-associated diseases Lymphoma the most common form of neoplasia--mediastinal, spinal, multifocal Immunosuppression Anemia Immune-mediated disorders—vasculitis, glomerulonephritis Reproductive problems—infertility Enteritis Neuropathies
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FeLV—differential diagnosis Various infectious diseases—FIV, bacterial, fungal, viral infections Renal disease Non-viral neoplasia Enteritis may resemble panleukopenia infection
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ELISA test—detects antigen in blood, urine, tears. IFA—detects antigen in cytoplasm of infected cells. Both detect p27 antigen. ELISA positive cats should
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Feline Retroviruses - Feline diseases VS 441 Feline...

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