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T IPS FOR S TUDYING S HAFFER IPP .: E XAM F OUR Read everything in the assigned chapters. You will be tested over the following concepts and passages. Entire passages are indicated by italics. C HAPTER F OURTEEN : Developmental Trends in Aggression (566) - Florence Goodenough: study asking mothers of 2- to 5-year olds to keep diaries where they wrote details about their children’s angry outbursts. o Data showed that unfocused temper tantrums are less common between ages 2 and 3 as children beging to physically retaliate (hitting/kicking) when they are frustrated or attacked o Physical agression declines from age 3 to 5, but replaced by teasing, tattling, name-calling, etc. o These children usually fought about toys and possessions, and there aggression was “instrumental” in character. - NICHD Early Child Care Research Network: study physical aggression from span of toddlerhood to middle childhood, used mother’s reports of children’s level of physical aggression, assessed each year from when their children were 2 to 9 year old. o Children also decline in physical aggression over preschool years. o Developed 5 different patterns of developmental change across toddlerhood and middle childhood. Vast majority of children (70%) were rated LOW by their mothers in aggression across the entire study period. 27%:other children were moderate in physical aggression during at least some point in the study, these children however show decline of aggression with age 3% of children were labled as high levels of aggression that remained stable throughout the study - Some level of physical aggression is normal early in toddlerhood, but for more children this type of aggression is relatibely rare by middle childhood. - Only a small group of children appear to have problems with displays of physical aggression that remain relatively stable into middle childhood and that may be a cause of concern for development. - Over the course of middle childhood, physical/verbal aggression declines as children learn to settle amicable ways. o Hostile aggression increases slightly, even as instrumental aggression becomes less common Because older children are better to recognize when someone is trying to harm them, and sometimes strike back against the harm-doer Grade-school children are reluctant to condemn retaliatory aggression Retaliatory aggression : aggressive acts elicted by real or imagined provocations o Children often view “fighting-back” as normal (though not necessarily moral) response to provocation Proactive aggressors & reactive aggressors (569) - Children vay dramatically in their levels of aggression and a small percentage can be called “chronically aggressive.” - Charted aggressive incidents among grade-school and high-school students find a small minority of children are involved in the majority of conflicts. o
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This note was uploaded on 11/30/2009 for the course PSY 304 taught by Professor Repp during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas.

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